Northern Virginia Democrats and Republicans drew their battle lines for legislative and local offices yesterday, the deadline for filing for June 14 nominating primaries.

Much of the action this spring is expected to center on the seats left open by retiring legislators such as Fairfax Democrat Sen. Adelard L. Brault and Republican Del. Warren E. Barry.

Three Republicans and three Democrats will battle over the right to fill Barry's 42nd District House seat. Barry decided instead to challenge Fairfax County Circuit Court Clerk James E. Hoofnagle, a Democrat, in what is expected to be a close race.

No one had filed by yesterday to oppose Alexandria Del. Bernard S. Cohen, Democrat from the 46th House District, or a handful of Fairfax officials.

Officials in both parties emphasized yesterday that party chairmen can appoint someone as late as in June to represent their party in the November general election and many of the currently unopposed incumbents may yet see battle in the fall.

Among the other Fairfax officials without opposition were Democratic Commonwealth's Attorney Robert F. Horan Jr., Republican Sheriff M. Wayne Huggins, Annandale Democratic Supervisor Audrey Moore, Centreville Democrat Supervisor Martha V. Pennino, Democrat Dels. Kenneth R. Plum of the 36th District and Vivian E. Watts of the 39th District, Republican Del. James H. Dillard of the 41st District, and Democrat Sen. Joseph V. Gartlan Jr. of the 36th District.

In a few areas, the parties opted to use a mass meeting instead of a primary election to select the party candidates.

In Loudoun County Republicans have until May 9 to file and a county mass meeting to select the party slate will be held May 21.

Loudoun Democrats will hold a mass meeting June 11 to name a nominee for only one seat -- that of Supervisor Carl F. Henrickson. He urged the party to let him go that route, arguing it would save funds for the general election.

In Alexandria, Democrats will choose between two candidates for the 30th District Senate seat held by Republican Wiley F. Mitchell Jr. at a mass meeting on May 14. They are former City Council member Beverly Beidler and Jared Cameron, a travel agency employe and party activist.

In Arlington, Democrats plan to hold a mass meeting on May 16 to select candidates for two county board seats, and Republicans plan to hold one May 17. The filing deadlines are not until early May.

Both parties will chose their candidates for the state Senate and House of Delegates in primaries on June 14.

Arlington police officer John E. Baber filed as an independent candidate for Arlington County sheriff, which apparently paves the way for county officials to fire him from his police post. County civil service employes are prohibited from seeking public office by the county's "Little Hatch Act," and Police Chief William K. Stover has said he would recommend that Baber be fired if he seeks office.

All members of the Fairfax County board filed for reelection, but only one, Supervisor Marie B. Travesky, a Republican from the Springfield District, faces a primary. Travesky is being challenged by Republican Elaine McConnell, founder of the Accotink Academy for children with learning difficulties. Two Democrats, Gerry Serody and Tom Giska, will face off for their party's nomination for the Springfield seat.

The only other primary race for a supervisor's seat will be in the Providence District, where Republicans Steve Armstrong and John Austin Jr. will oppose each in June for the right to battle incumbent Democrat James M. Scott and independent William M. Lockwood.

Democrats Emilie Miller and Daniel S. Alcorn and Republicans Joe West and former Fairfax City Mayor John W. Russell all want Brault's 34th District Senate seat. Democrats Les Fetig, Mark Glazer and Lawrence J. Pascal, and Republicans Bob Cunningham, Jack Caussin and Bruce Green have their eye on Barry's 42nd District House of Delegates seat.

Democrats Louis Rothberg and Phil Schabot have both declared for the Democratic nomination for the 44th District House seat held by Republican Frank Medico. Republicans Gwendalyn F. Cody and Lynne Purvis will battle for the 38th District House seat that Cody lost to Democrat Nora Squyres last fall.

In Prince Williams County, all members of the Board of Supervisors filed for reelection and only one, Democrat Donald L. White, will face a primary challenge, from Democrat John Bonfadini for the Gainesville District seat. On the Republican side, John W. Dempewolf Jr., Ron Butler, Guy Anthony Guiffre and Sue Coe are vying for nomination.