The House District Committee yesterday approved a federal payment for the District of Columbia of $386 million for fiscal year 1984, the amount requested by President Reagan and $25 million more than for this fiscal year.

The vote was 11 to 0, with Rep. Stan Parris (R-Va.) not voting. The payment, which represents about 19 percent of the city's budget, is intended to compensate the city for the costs of the federal government's presence and for local real estate tax revenues forgone because of federal exemptions.

Parris' absence from yesterday's meeting was intended as a "silent protest" over the federal payment, a staff aide said. The Virginia congressman will oppose the payment on the House floor unless the city agrees to stop using the firing range at Lorton prison permanently, the aide said. Some of Parris' constituents have recently complained that bullets from that range have struck homes in their neighborhood.

The panel postponed action on a bill to eliminate the 30-day review period that Congress has over District legislation, deciding to look instead for a compromise that would reduce the time it takes to get city laws enacted without taking away as much congressional prerogative. That would have a better chance of passing on the floor, panel members said.

Later in the day, the House Appropriations Committee subcommittee on the District continued its hearings on the city's budget.

Judith W. Rogers, D.C. corporation counsel, asked for $4.4 million to cover judgments and settlements in lawsuits against the city. That figure is near what was actually spent in the last fiscal year, but the number of lawsuits pending against the city is rising, Rogers said.