Ten persons who were protesting the Soviet Union's "inhumane treatment" of a Ukrainian human and political rights activist were arrested yesterday afternoon outside the Soviet embassy, police reported.

The arrests followed a demonstration at Lafayette Park, across from the White House, by about 350 Ukrainian-American students from around the country, according to John Mularoni, a spokesman for organizers of the protest.

Mularoni said the demonstration was held to publicize the plight of Yuriy Shukhevych, 51, a member of the Ukrainian Helsinki Monitoring Group, who "was imprisoned in 1948 at the age of 14 and has now spent more than two-thirds of his life serving the Soviet state," according to a press release which said that Shukhevych "is currently blind as a result of experimental surgery performed in a psychiatric hospital in 1982."

Later about 250 protesters marched to the Soviet embassy, 1115 16th St. NW, to deliver a petition demanding the release of Shukhevych and other human rights activists, Mularoni said.

He said the demonstrators were stopped by police about 500 feet from the embassy. However, he said, a small group of demonstrators was already inside the barricade, and one man was admitted to the embassy. It was not known last night if he succeeded in delivering the petition.

Later, he and nine other demonstrators in front of the embassy refused to disband as police ordered.

A police spokeswoman said seven women and three men were arrested and charged with demonstrating within 500 feet of an embassy. Each was released on $50 bond.