President Reagan has resubmitted the name of Central Intelligence Agency general counsel Stanley Sporkin to the Senate to fill a judgeship vacancy at U.S. District Court in the District of Columbia, the White House said yesterday.

Sporkin, 53, was among 17 federal judicial candidates nationwide whose nominations died in the Senate Judiciary Committee last year.

If confirmed by the Senate this time, Sporkin would fill a position left vacant by Judge June L. Green, who took semi-retired senior status about a year ago.

Sporkin first was recommended for the lifetime appointment last year by a top-level selection panel of Justice Department and White House officials, despite opposition from conservatives and business groups.

His opponents cited Sporkin's controversial tenure as enforcement chief at the Securities and Exchange Commission, arguing that he had been too zealous in performing his duties in the post.

Some senators also questioned Sporkin's conservative credentials at the time.

Sporkin won the backing of the screening committee following vigorous lobbying on his behalf by his boss at the CIA, director William J. Casey, who reportedly wrote or called several members of the panel.

A CIA spokeswoman said that Sporkin would have no comment on his renomination.

Separately, the White House said yesterday that the president will nominate Herbert M. Rutherford III, 36, to be U.S. Marshal for the District of Columbia.

Rutherford, who has been serving in the post on an interim basis, formerly was U.S. Marshal for the eastern half of Virginia, a jurisidiction that includes Washington's Virginia suburbs.

Rutherford will succeed Robert L. Matthews in the District of Columbia post.