The Jewish population in this country increased by 89,000 last year for a total of 5,817,000, according to the just-issued 1985 American Jewish Yearbook.

New York still had the largest concentration of Jews, 10.6 percent, followed by New Jersey with 5.8 percent. Florida, which accounted for the bulk of last year's increase, had 5.2 percent of all U.S. Jews.

A demographic study in the book reported that Jewish households in St. Louis showed the greatest concentration of affluence, with 43 percent earning more than $40,000. In New York City, 33 percent of Jewish households earned more than $40,000.

At the other end of the scale, in every community except Washington, D.C., where the figure was 5 percent, at least 10 percent of Jewish households had incomes less than $10,000.

The Jewish community in the Washington area had the highest percentage of professionals -- 49 percent -- in the country; the largest proportion with advanced degrees -- 48 percent -- and the smallest percentage -- 15 percent -- with a high school education or less.

Washington area Jews tended to be younger than the national aggregate, according to the study. The area also had the highest proportion of single persons -- 27 percent -- of the 15 cities studied and the highest concentration of Jewish males -- 52 percent including all categories of marital status.

A relatively small proportion -- 39 percent -- of Washington area Jews belonged to a synagogue, the lowest rate after Los Angeles, Phoenix and Miami. Minneapolis, with 79 percent, had the highest proportion of synagogue members.

Three percent of Washington Jews, the smallest percentage in the nation, identified themselves as Orthodox; 35 percent said they are Conservative and 38 percent Reform. Seattle claimed the highest percentage of Orthodox with 15 percent; St. Paul, with 55, had the highest percentage of Conservative; while St. Louis and Milwaukee tied for the largest proportion of Reform, with 52 percent. A new Church of England study indicates that Anglicanism is dying in rural parishes. Since 1960, baptisms have declined by 50 percent, confirmations fell by two-thirds, and 25 percent of rural church services are attended by fewer than 10 worshipers.

Six out of 10 country churches have no Sunday schools and no contact with teen-agers, while the average age of members of rural congregations rises each year, the study found.

Researchers, focusing on a typical deanery -- a cluster of 21 parishes -- found that of the 24 services conducted on a typical Sunday, six were attended by more than 20 worshipers; six services had five or fewer worshipers.

A similarly bleak picture comes from Finland, where a spokesman for the state church -- Lutheran -- said that church attendance rates are "a catastrophe."

The Rev. Juhani Simojoki , information chief for the church in Helsinki, said that overall attendance rates "average 2 percent or so." If these figures are adjusted "for church attendances by school classes and similar events and concentrates on ordinary Sundays, the result is depressing," he added.

Attendance at churches and synagogues in the United States has held at about 40 percent of membership in recent years, according to Gallup estimates. The Church of England's policy-making General Synod voted 320 to 83 this week to permit ordination of women as deacons, the lowest rank of the Anglican clergy. But it stopped short of allowing them to become priests.

A deacon, third in the rank of holy orders, behind priests and bishops, usually becomes a priest after one year. Deacons perform most functions of a priest except for celebrating holy communion and giving absolution. Unlike men, women deacons would not be allowed to advance to the priesthood without authorization.

The synod vote must be approved by Britain's Parliament before the state church can put it into practice.

The Church of England has an exclusively male priesthood as do the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches, but other provinces of the 65 million-member Anglican Communion worldwide have ordained about 700 women priests.