The District and Baltimore each lost about 10,000 residents, while Virginia's nine largest cities all gained in the latest Census Bureau update of city population estimates, which was announced yesterday.

The region's two largest municipalities lost population between July 1, 1982 and July 1, 1984, according to the report, while Virginia's largest city, Virginia Beach, topped the 300,000 mark for the first time during that same period.

The District's population fell from 633,425 to 622,823, but the city retained its ranking as the nation's 17th largest.

Meanwhile, Baltimore remained in 12th place, while dropping from 774,113 to 763,570.

A Census Bureau report released earlier this year, in which the District was considered a state, placed its population at 623,000.

A Census Bureau spokesman said yesterday that the new city report reflects "more refined data." The city's population in the official 1980 census was 638,333.

Virgina Beach's rapid growth, from 282,588 to 308,664 in the two-year period, pushed it up four spots into 50th place.

The other Virginia city rankings were: Norfolk, 55th, up 12,809 to 279,683; Richmond, 69th, up 219 to 219,056; Newport News, 103rd, up 3,320 to 154,560; Chesapeake, 128th, up 5,282 to 126,031; Hampton, 129th, up 1,022 to 125,992; Portsmouth, up 2,154 to 107,961; Alexandria, 158th, up 2,754 to 107,026, and Roanoke, 175th, up 501 to 100,688.

The highest change in the national ranking occurred when San Francisco edged out Indianapolis for 13th place.

The biggest cities remain, in order, New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, Detroit, Dallas, San Diego, Phoenix, San Antonio, Honolulu and Baltimore.

Jacksonville made the largest jump among the big cities, moving from 23rd to 19th. Boston moved up a notch, to 20th, while Columbus and New Orleans slipped, from 19th and 20th to 21st and 22nd respectively.

The new report found 176 cities with populations above 100,000, the same number as two years ago.

Three cities fell below the 100,000 mark -- Columbia, S.C.; Pueblo, Colo., and Albany, N.Y. -- and were replaced by Laredo, Texas; Ontario, Calif., and Springfield, Ill.