The effects of President Reagan's proposal to tie a 1987 pay raise to increased employe retirement contributions would range from increases of about $43 a year in lower grades to pay cuts of $348 for senior executives, the General Accounting Office said in a study released yesterday.

The president's budget calls for a 3 percent federal pay raise in 1987, accompanied by a 2 percent increase in employe contributions to the retirement system, bringing those contributions to 9 percent of salary.

If approved by Congress, the president's plan would raise annual take-home pay next year by $43 for a Grade 5 civil servant; increase it $16 for GS 9 workers, and mean an annual cut after deductions of $63 for those at GS 12 level and a $348 per year cut for members of the Senior Executive Service.

The calculations were made by GAO at the request of Rep. William D. Ford (D-Mich.), who wanted to know the projected effects on pay for executives and workers in three of the most populous grades.

Pay at the GS 5 level, which includes many clerical workers and some beginning professionals, ranges from $14,390 to $18,710 a year; GS 9 workers are paid $21,804 to $28,347; GS 12 runs from $31,619 to $41,105. At Level 4, which takes in most members of the SES, annual pay is $68,700.

GAO used the fifth step of the three white-collar pay grades and assumed standard life insurance premiums and Medicare, state and federal taxes.

Without the pay raise or retirement contribution increase, GAO estimates that the typical GS 5 employe would earn $14,059 after deductions; GS 9 would take home $20,185; GS 12, $27,404, and Level 4 executives, $45,821. If pay and pension contributions were increased, GAO said, the take-home pay would amount to $14,102; $20,201; $27,341 and $45,473, respectively.