The Marine Corps will convene a second court-martial for Cpl. Lindsey Scott, the black marine whose sentence of 30 years at hard labor for the rape, attempted murder, kidnaping and sodomy of a white woman at the Quantico Marine Corps base was overturned in July by the nation's highest military court.

The decision announced yesterday and made by Lt. Gen. Frank E. Petersen, the commanding officer of the Quantico base, is certain to prolong a case that attracted protests from civil rights groups and nationwide scrutiny starting shortly after the woman was attacked in April 1983.

Scott was convicted in October 1983 and spent 45 months in prison before his conviction was overturned this summer by the U.S. Court of Military Appeals. Since August, he has been assigned to the security battalion at Quantico -- his unit before the original court-martial -- working as a supply clerk.

Although the decision was not a surprise to military and defense lawyers close to the case, it provoked bitter anger and dismay from Scott's family and attorneys -- as well as the family of the victim.

"I'm numb," said Scott's wife Lolita, contacted by telephone at a friend's house near the marine base. "I'm shocked and I'm hurt. It's like we've been dead four years and they just keep killing us."

The victim, now living with her family in New York state, could not be reached for comment. Her mother, contacted by phone, said: "This is extremely upsetting for {the victim}. The whole thing is like going through hell twice."

Military sources said the victim had agreed to testify in the second court-martial.

Scott, who will continue in his regular duties at the base as he awaits court-martial, was instructed by his attorneys not to discuss his case with the media and could not be reached for comment yesterday.

One of Scott's civilian attorneys, Gary Myers, said: "Gen. Frank Petersen has spent his career demonstrating that a black man could also be a good marine. In this case he has ignored the Constitution and unjustifiably sent a young black man to trial. This . . . undoubtedly qualifies him to move from three stars to be commandant {of the Marine Corps}. It is an outrageous result, and I expect an aquittal and subsequent to that aquittal I expect an apology from the general.

"This is not going to be a pretty trial," he added.

Petersen is the highest-ranking black officer in the Marine Corps, and some sources close to Scott had speculated privately that he had faced a personal dilemma -- torn between considerations of career and race -- in trying to decide whether to retry Scott. Petersen did not consent to be interviewed by The Post during his deliberations, and military sources scoffed at the suggestion that race -- or anything other than the facts of the case -- was a factor in his decision.

Myers' comments seemed to assure that the subject of race, which has been an element in the publicity surrounding Scott's case from the outset, is not likely to disappear in the weeks or months preceding the second court-martial.

The NAACP and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, among other groups, condemned the Marines for concluding that Scott was guilty because of his race. The Marines have hotly denied racial motivation in their investigation or prosecution.

The decision by the three-judge military court to overturn Scott's conviction this summer was unanimous. In so deciding, the court found that the failure of Scott's original civilian attorney to prepare a competent alibi defense in the court-martial "casts doubt" on the conviction. Scott had selected his first attorney, Ervan E. Kuhnke Jr. of Dumfries, based on an advertisement in the Yellow Pages.

Military sources said they were not surprised by Petersen's decision because Scott's conviction had not been overturned on the facts of the case, but on the issue of ineffective counsel. "Basically there's nothing new in the case," said one source, who asked not to be identified. "We have the same facts that we had before."

Scott's attorneys contended in a brief supplied to Petersen, however, that Kuhnke's failure to identify and prepare witnesses who would have supported Scott's alibi caused "forever lost opportunities."

Scott became a suspect soon after the victim, the 23-year-old wife of a military policeman who worked with Scott, was found bleeding and dazed on Quantico base.

She told investigators she had been lured from her apartment hours earlier by a telephone call from a man who said her husband had been in an accident and who offered to take her to the hospital.

Instead of going to the hospital, the man drove to a remote spot, raped her, choked her and stabbed her, according to her testimony.

The victim twice identified Scott as her assailant, first from a group of photographs and then from a lineup, but each time she equivocated, saying other men in the groups resembled him. Once she picked Scott because he "scares me the most."

In interviews with investigators, however, she offered a description of the interior of Scott's car that was accurate in several respects.

Military sources said they expect the court-martial to take place before the end of the year, but Scott's attorneys said they expect appeals and procedural challenges to delay the trial until spring at the earliest.