Most of the Washington area's 19,000 federal blue-collar workers who are paid under either the wage board or printing and lithographic wage systems will get a 2 percent pay raise this month. The increase, similar to the raise approved earlier for more than 300,000 white-collar civil servants here, is effective with the first pay period beginning on or after Jan. 9. For most of the employees that means the raises either started last Sunday or go into effect Jan. 17.

Employees paid under special negotiated scales at the Government Printing Office and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing are not included in this raise.

Federal blue-collar salaries are supposed to be adjusted each year on an area-by-area basis to keep pace with home-town pay rates for similar nonfederal jobs. But Congress has limited most blue-collar raises in recent years to the amount granted white-collar civilian federal workers.

There are 15 grades in the wage grade levels, with five pay steps in each grade. It takes an employee about six years to move from the bottom to the top of his or her grade. The new rates bring the minimum and maximum hourly rates for Wage Grade One employees to $5.97 and $6.96, respectively, and Wage Grade Two steps to $6.61 to start and $7.73 at the top. Most of the employees in those grades are janitors.

Wage Grades 9, 10 and 11, which include most journeymen carpenters, electricians, plumbers and other skilled trades, will range from $10.81 to $12.63 an hour at the Grade 9 level. Grade 10 goes to $11.38 to $13.29 an hour and Wage Grade 11 rises to $11.95 to $13.95 an hour. Specialized employees such as tool makers in Wage Grade 13 will have a new hourly rate ranging from $13.08 to $15.25.

The blue collar-lithographic raises apply to employees in the District, and Charles, Montgomery, Prince George's, Calvert, Frederick and St. Mary's counties in Maryland, and Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, Fauquier, King George and Stafford counties in Virginia plus the cities of Alexandria, Fairfax and Falls Church.People

Arnold E. Ostrom, the first historian of the Military Traffic Management Command, has retired after 38 years with Uncle Sam.

Office of Personnel Management's Gail Blachly has returned to her Alexandria- based public relations firm, Boga Mesa, after 18 months as special assistant in OPM's press operation. Job Mart

The Department of Health and Human Services is looking for a Grade 15 supervisory computer specialist. Call Gladys Nicholson at 245-6212 . . . . HHS also needs a GS 11/12 public affairs specialist. Call Judy Holtz at 472-3142.

The Federal Communications Commission wants two supply management officers, GS 11 and 12, and a GS 7 supervisory supply technician. Call 632-7106.

Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service in Hyattsville need a GS 11/12 freedom-of-information coordinator. Call 436-7776.

The National Institutes of Health in Bethesda has openings for a personnel clerk (typing), GS 5/7 and a statistician, GS 9 through 12. Call Cliff Schein at 496-6334.

The Fish and Wildlife Service needs a procurement analyst, GS 12/13. Call 653-8703.

The Drug Enforcement Administration has 100 openings for clerk-typists, GS 2 through 4. Call Donna Falk at 633-1034.