50, editor of South Africa's antigovernment weekly City Press newspaper and a 1980-1981 guest editor of the Washington Star newspaper, whose crusade against apartheid earned him awards overseas and a jail term at home, died Jan. 17 at the Johannesburg Rand Clinic after a heart attack.
Mr. Qoboza became perhaps the most prominent of South Africa's black journalists. He gained international attention during riots in Soweto township outside Johannesburg in 1976 when he fiercely criticized Pretoria in The World, a white-owned newspaper he edited.
The government closed The World in 1977. Mr. Qoboza was detained for 5 1/2 months but was released without charges.. He became editor of The World's successor, the Post, but it, too, had a short life under apartheid press laws. In 1985, he became editor of the Johannesburg-based City Press, eventually the largest circulation black-readership newspaper in South Africa.
81, who painted a controversial portrait of former secretary of State Henry Kissinger in 1978, which was commissioned then rejected by the State Department, died Jan. 14 at a hospital in Cambridge, Mass. He had a heart ailment.
He was known for his portraits of famous and powerful people, including former secretary of State Dean Rusk, poet Robert Frost and the late Harvard University president James B. Conant. His portraits hang in the National Portrait Gallery, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and the U.S. Supreme Court.
THOMAS A. PAPPAS,
89, a retired Greek-born businessman and prominent Republican fund-raiser and former ambassador to Greece during the Eisenhower administration who was a friend of presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard M. Nixon and of vice president Spiro Agnew, died Jan. 13 at his home in Palm Beach, Fla. The cause of death was not reported.
He helped turn his father's small Greek grocery in Boston into a liquor and food import distributorship. In the 1960s, he joined Standard Oil of New Jersey to form Esso Pappas International, a $200 million development project in Greece.
86, editor of the Vatican daily newspaper L'Osservatore Romano from 1960 to 1978, died Jan. 14 in Rome. The cause of death was not reported.
Mr. Manzini took over as editor of the Vatican newspaper after working as editor of the Italian Roman Catholic daily L'Avvenire d'Italia and serving three terms as a member of Parliament. He changed the makeup of L'Osservatore, devoting more space to photographs and cultural news. Mr. Manzini also started weekly supplements to the Italian daily in English, French, Spanish, German and Portuguese.
WALTER RUSKIN STARK,
90, a former chief economist at the Treasury Department who worked in the White House in World War II, died Jan. 10 in a nursing home in Sarasota, Fla. He had a stroke and peritonitis.
Mr. Stark, a native of Iowa and a graduate of the University of Michigan, moved to Washington and went to work for the Federal Reserve Board in 1923. He transferred to Treasury in 1928 and resigned in 1935. He later was an investment counselor in Boston. He was a member of the Cosmos Club.
62, a commercial photographer who received a temporary artificial heart Dec. 4, then underwent surgery for a permanent heart transplant 10 days later, died Jan. 17 from generalized infection at Humana Hospital-Audubon in Louisville.
A Jarvik-770 mechanical heart, a smaller version of the original Jarvik 100 artificial heart, was placed in his chest after physicians decided that his diseased heart would no longer function.