RICHMOND, JAN. 19 -- Gov. Gerald L. Baliles' administration outlined a proposal today to make Virginia's hospitals and nursing homes pay more than $50 million annually in new fees to help finance health care for low-income people in the state.

The plan, strongly opposed by the hospital industry, is an attempt to get a handle on skyrocketing health care costs for the poor, which Human Resources Secretary Eva S. Teig called "the biggest crisis for Virginia budgetary minds."

Stuart D. Ogren, president of the Virginia Hospital Association, denounced the proposal as a "sick tax" that would raise the cost of hospital care to other patients and would result in some Virginia hospitals becoming unprofitable.

"We will fight them to the bitter end," Ogren said in a telephone interview.

Initial reaction from members of the General Assembly generally was lukewarm, with legislators acknowledging the problem but raising concerns.

"It's a new approach to an old problem, one we have been facing for several years," said Del. George H. Heilig Jr. (D-Norfolk), chairman of the House Appropriations subcommittee on human resources, which was briefed today by Teig. He said he had not yet taken a position on the idea but added, "one of the best things it's got going for it is that it's the only proposal out there on the table."

Baliles' proposed 1988-90 budget includes an increase of $145.9 million in state funds during the two years for Medicaid, the joint state-federal program for health care for the poor, but this amount is needed just to keep services at current levels, adminstration officials have said.

"This is a problem that will not go away," Teig told the subcommittee. Unless something is done soon, the state will find itself in 1989 "making drastic cuts in a program {Medicaid} that is pretty basic to begin with," she said. In Virginia, only those with incomes less than 54 percent of the poverty level are eligible for Medicaid.

Under the plan, hospitals would pay $5 per bed per day, and nursing homes would pay $1 per bed per day as part of their licensing fees. With federal matching funds under Medicaid, the fee proposal would yield up to $162.8 million in general fund revenue, officials said.

In addition, between $18 million and $20 million would go into a separate trust fund, to be used to reimburse hospitals for uncompensated health care they provide to indigents.

This approach would result in spreading the burden of caring for the poor among hospitals, according to state officials. Some hospitals turn away indigents, while others bear a disproportionate burden of uncompensated costs, Teig said. The hospital association estimated that Virginia hospitals lost $330 million in uncompensated care in 1986.

The Baliles administration and the hospital association traded jibes today, each accusing the other of operating in bad faith and apparently foreshadowing a showdown over the issue in the General Assembly.

Teig said the administration is willing to be flexible on the proposal but that the hospital association has refused to negotiate. The hospital industry has done nothing but oppose the plan and argue that the state should pay for indigent health care with more public funds, she said.

"Actually, it infuriates me . . . because it is such an irresponsible approach," Teig told the subcommittee.

Ogren countered in a telephone interview that the association saw the proposal only 10 days ago and accused the Baliles administration of "secrecy in government."

"They wanted to spring this on us," he said, calling the plan an attempt at "a quick fix." Ogren said a better alternative is an approach used in Michigan of putting a 1.33 percent tax on insurance premiums to create a fund for indigent health care.

The Baliles proposal would cost Arlington Hospital $640,000 a year, which ultimately would be passed on to insurers and employers, a hospital official said.