Fairfax County school officials, concerned that Virginia's economic outlook could lead to deeper cuts in state education funding, have ordered administrators and principals to trim by 10 percent their budgets for textbooks and supplies and hold the money in reserve.

Fairfax is the first Northern Virginia school system to prescribe specific spending cuts in reaction to Virginia's projected $1.4 billion revenue shortfall. Other local school officials have announced no plans to trim expenses and said yesterday they will wait for more specific budget guidelines from Richmond, expected next week.

Fairfax Assistant Superintendent Carl F. Juncker said the non-personnel cuts could lead to a $6 million to $8 million savings this year without harming instruction or cutting teacher compensation. He said much of the savings would come from programs that typically have funds left over at year's end.

A local teachers union, however, disputed that.

"The quality of instruction has to go down," said Mark Glofka, vice president of the Fairfax County Federation of Teachers, which says it represents about 1,500 of the county's approximately 10,000 teachers and classroom aides. "You need these instructional supplies because {otherwise} it's very difficult to motivate children to learn."

"We all are very concerned about how the 10 percent cuts will shake out in the individual budgets," said Jane Strauss, president of the Fairfax County Council of PTAs. "Can principals take 10 percent out of their budgets and not affect instruction? That question has not been answered."

According to Juncker, about $100 per student is budgeted for textbooks and supplies at each elementary school, and that could be cut to about $90.

Juncker said that lists of potential cuts -- which could affect everything but personnel expenses -- are being drafted by about 16 departments for consideration by the School Board and the superintendent.

"It's just a prudent fiscal measure at this point," he said.

School spokeswoman Dolores Bohen said the savings could be used as a cushion for even deeper cuts expected next year.

In remarks yesterday at a CBS-sponsored forum on education at Georgetown University, Gov. L. Douglas Wilder said educational quality depends on more than money.

"We stress money so much so as to make it anecdotal that the only problem with education is a problem of money," said Wilder. Later the governor praised many Virginia districts for finding creative ways to save money, such as using more volunteers.

Juncker said state aid to Fairfax schools is down to $134.5 million this year, $6 million less than in fiscal 1990. The 10 percent cuts could trim close to 1.5 percent from the county schools' operating budget of $875.8 million. The savings will be put into a reserve fund, he said, "so if a problem develops in any one school, the area superintendent can spend money from the reserve or redistribute funds."

There are no plans for budget cuts in Prince William County, Northern Virginia's second largest school division, but officials there said "all sorts of options" are under consideration.

"The biggest problem right now is the panic before we know what the governor is actually going to do to us," Associate Superintendent Robert Ferrebee said in an interview yesterday.

At Virginia's 15 public colleges, officials are continuing to announce cuts. Because of budget constraints, students at the College of William and Mary will be billed a surcharge -- $50 for Virginia students, $200 for out-of-state students -- beginning next semester, officials announced this week. The surcharge would double during the 1991-92 academic year.

The tuition surcharge, which would raise $601,000 in the first year, will be submitted for approval to state Secretary of Education James W. Dyke Jr., said Samuel E. Jones, the college's director of planning and budget.

William and Mary officials said they will trim the college's $60 million operating budget by $5.7 million -- $2.4 million this year and more than $3.3 million in fiscal 1992.

Staff writers D'Vera Cohn, Maria Koklanaris, Robert F. Howe and Whitney Redding contributed to this report.