Samuel M. Brownell, 90, a former professor and college president who served as U.S. Commissioner of Education from 1953 to 1956, died Oct. 12 at a hospital in New Haven, Conn., after a heart attack. He lived in New Haven.
During his years as education commissioner, enrollments in the nation's schools were skyrocketing because of the post-World War II baby boom. Dr. Brownell lobbied Congress and state legislatures for additional money for education and warned of a pressing need for more and better schools and more teachers.
He also advocated higher salaries as a way to attract new and better teachers to the profession. As an educator and government official, he worked to attract male elementary and high school teachers to balance what he believed was then a near-monopoly of child supervision and education by women.
After the Supreme Court's historic 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision outlawing school segregation, Dr. Brownell called for acceptance of the ruling. He also worked to assist schools affected by it.
He directed the administrative operations that resulted in his Office of Education becoming part of a new federal Cabinet department, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. In the new department, he helped inaugurate education research projects.
Dr. Brownell left the federal government in 1956 and spent the next decade as superintendent of schools in Detroit. During his years there, he fought one of the highest dropout rates in the nation, recruited blacks for high administrative posts and directed a massive school building program.
Dr. Brownell, a native of Nebraska, served in the Army during World War I. He was a 1921 graduate of the University of Nebraska, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He then spent a short time as a high school science teacher and principal in Nebraska.
He then went to Yale University, where his brother, Herbert Brownell Jr., a future U.S. attorney general under President Eisenhower, was attending law school. Dr. Brownell received master's and doctoral degrees in education from Yale in the mid-1920s.
He spent 11 years as schools superintendent in Grosse Pointe, Mich., before returning to Yale in 1938. He was a professor of education administration at Yale's graduate school until 1953. While continuing to teach at Yale, he served as president of New Haven State Teachers College from 1947 to 1953. He returned to the Yale faculty in 1966 and was named professor emeritus of educational administration in 1972.
Before joining the government, Dr. Brownell served as president of the higher education division of the National Education Associaton and as accrediting committee chairman of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. He also wrote more than 40 technical journal articles.
Survivors include his wife, Elizabeth, of New Haven; four children; two brothers; nine grandchildren; and a great-grandchild.
SISTER MARY LEONARD WHIPPLE
Nun and Educator
Mary Leonard Whipple VHM, 91, a longtime educator and administrator at Georgetown Visitation Convent in Washington, died of a heart ailment Oct. 13 at the convent, where she had lived since coming to the Washington area in 1921.
Sister Mary Leonard taught Latin at Georgetown Visitation Preparatory School before serving as its headmistress from 1947 to 1953. She then spent seven years as dean of Georgetown Visitation's junior college.
From 1960 to 1962, she was director of novices at the monastery, then spent a decade as assistant superior of convent. She was superior of the monastery from 1972 to 1978.
Sister Mary Leonard was born in Providence, R.I. She received a bachelor's degree in classics from Hunter College, entered the convent in 1921 and made her profession of faith in 1923. Five years later, she received a master's degree in classics from Georgetown University.
She leaves no immediate survivors.
CHARLES J. FRANCIS
CIA Administrative Officer
Charles J. Francis, 76, an administrative officer with the Central Intelligence Agency here and in Europe for 25 years before retiring in 1972, died Oct. 11 at the University of Virginia Hospital in Charlottesville. He had emphysema and diabetes.
Mr. Francis, a former Falls Church resident who had lived in Palmyra, Va., since 1987, was a native of St. Paul, Minn. He graduated from the University of Minnesota with a degree in mechanical engineering.
He had begun his government career in 1939 with the U.S. Civil Service Commission, working in St. Paul before transferring here in 1941. In 1944, he left to join the Office of Strategic Services. He joined the CIA in 1947, the year the agency was established.
From 1972 to 1977, Mr. Francis was a librarian at the Mary Riley Styles Public Library in Falls Church.
He had been a member of St. James Catholic Church in Falls Church.
Survivors include his wife of 49 years, the former Peggy Kinkead, of Palmyra; a son, J. Patrick Francis of Oakton; four daughters, Colleen Van Atta of Chatham, N.J., Eileen Scott of Oakton, and Liz McRaney and Micki Francis, both of Falls Church; a brother, Donald T., of Manassas; a sister, Katherine Farkas of Shell Lake, Wis.; and three grandchildren.
ALAN T. SPIHER JR.
FDA Project Manager
Alan T. Spiher Jr., 72, a retired project manager at the Food and Drug Administration, died Oct. 12 at a hospital in Culpeper, Va., after a heart attack. He lived in Locust Grove, Va.
Mr. Spiher joined the FDA in 1941 as a field inspector. He worked in New Orleans before transferring here in 1955. He was a project manager and a specialist in food and drug law when he retired in 1975 and moved from Annandale to Fredericksburg, Va.
He then went to work at the United Nation's Food & Agriculture Organization in Qatar. He was a food control law specialist there until retiring again in 1979.
Mr. Spiher was born in Kansas City, Mo., and grew up in California. He graduated from the University of California at Los Angeles and the George Washington University law school. During World War II, he served in the Army Air Forces in the Pacific and was recalled to active duty during the Korean conflict.
He had been a member of Columbia Baptist Church in Arlington.
Survivors include his wife, Elizabeth Rebecca Butler Spiher of Locust Grove; two sons, Alan III, of McLean, and William Bruce Spiher of Alexandria; two daughters, Rebecca Spiher of Locust Grove, and Marty Hartman of Unionville, Va.; and two grandchildren.
JOHN E. CAMPBELL
John E. Campbell, 72, a retired legislative assistant with the American Hospital Association and former aide to Sen. Lister Hill (D-Ala.), died Oct. 14 at Mount Vernon Hospital after a heart attack. He lived in Alexandria.
He spent 21 years on Hill's staff, retiring as his legislative assistant when the senator retired in 1969. He then worked for the American Hospital Association until retiring in 1980.
Mr. Campbell, who came here in 1947, was a native of Scottsboro, Ala. He was a graduate of the University of Alabama and its law school. He served with the Army in the Persian Gulf during World War II.
He was a member of Mount Vernon United Methodist Church in Alexandria and sang in the church choir. He had acted in Alexandria Little Theater productions. He had been a 1990 Census worker.
Survivors include his wife of 42 years, the former Virginia Jones, of Alexandria; a son, Robert, of Houston; two daughters, Laura Klock of Amherst, Mass., and Harriet Campbell of Alexandria; and four grandchildren.
JAMES J. WILLIAMS
Lawyer, ICC Official
James J. Williams, 94, a lawyer and a retired chief of the motor carriers division at the Interstate Commerce Commission, died of congestive heart failure Sept. 21 at the Fairfax Nursing Center.
Mr. Williams, who had moved to the Fairfax Nursing Center from Chevy Chase in May, was a native of Ohio. During World War I, he served in the Navy.
He came to the Washington area in the early 1920s. He graduated from the George Washington University law school about 1925 and went to work at the Interstate Commerce Commission.
During World War II, he worked at the Office of Defense Transportation and was awarded a meritorious service award for his work there. He retired from the ICC in 1958.
His wife of 70 years, Bertha Friedli Williams, died March 16.
His survivors include two daughters, Jean Bassett of Bloomfield, Conn., and Anne Cornacchione of Fairfax; four grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren.
PAULENE B. LOCKE
GOP Women's Club Member
Paulene B. Locke, 76, an area resident since 1946 who was a native of Georgia, died Oct. 12 at her home in Falls Church. She had a brain tumor.
Mrs. Locke was a member of the Greater Falls Church Republican Women's Club and the Edith Jacobs Book Club of Arlington. She belonged to Dulin Methodist Church in Falls Church and the Methodist women there.
Her first husband, Hugh P. Carter, died in 1968.
Her survivors include her husband, Vandiver R. Locke of Falls Church; a daughter by her first marriage, Cheryl Warner of Iowa Park, Tex.; a stepson, Daniel Locke of Haymarket; a sister, Earline Compton of China Grove, N.C.; and five grandchildren.