RICHMOND, FEB. 3 -- The Virginia Senate's powerful Finance Committee, in a broad challenge to Gov. L. Douglas Wilder's handling of the state's fiscal crisis, passed an alternative budget tonight that would reverse many of Wilder's planned cuts in programs and spend half of a $200 million "rainy day fund" that Wilder wants to retain in case the economy gets even worse.

The dissident spending plan, engineered principally by Senate Majority Leader Hunter B. Andrews (D-Hampton), a frequent Wilder adversary and arguably the most influential member of the General Assembly, would cancel most of a 15-day furlough of state employees, restore millions to local governments and school systems and allow state universities to offset cuts with tuition increases.

The House Appropriations Committee, also meeting tonight, generally was more sympathetic to Wilder's budget, keeping the rainy day fund intact. But it took a slap at his much-publicized use of state airplanes.

The House panel adopted a policy that would allow use of state aircraft "for private purposes only for reasons of security or emergency" and only when the full cost is paid from private money. It also would require making public immediately after all flights the names of passengers, the destination and the purpose of the trip.

Neither committee recommended any tax increase, but both came up with accounting changes to raise large sums of money. Because the Senate version of the budget differs more sharply with the governor's plan, Sen. Joseph V. Gartlan Jr. (D-Mount Vernon) predicted that "the first showdown will be with the House, with the governor standing behind them with his six-guns twirling."

Legislators on both committees differed not only with Wilder's spending priorities, but also with his approach to fiscal affairs, which routinely has left lawmakers in the dark and prompted complaints that he had usurped the legislature's power. To correct that, both committees proposed changes that would crimp Wilder's power to make unilateral spending cuts.

"We're entitled as the legislative branch to see things differently," said Sen. Clive L. DuVal 2d (D-McLean), who is likely to be one of six legislators sitting on the conference committee that will work out a budget compromise between the Senate and House versions.

DuVal, dean of the Northern Virginia legislative delegation, said the Senate budget plan "may make it easier for {Wilder}. I don't think he's delighted with cutting education and {harming} the colleges."

Wilder said Virginia's unprecedented budget gap is growing larger virtually every day. On Friday, he announced that the projected deficit had grown by an additional $176 million, bringing the total shortfall to $2.2 billion -- nearly 20 percent of the state's general fund budget.

DuVal said that until the latest downturn in the forecast, the Senate was "all set" to send about $10 million a year more to Northern Virginia governments in partial fulfillment of a deal made two years ago that also helped finance a highway across the southern part of the state.

At almost every turn, Andrews's committee came up with a plan for dealing with the budget crisis that differs from the governor's. For example, it rejected a Wilder idea to sell bonds, repaid from the Literary Fund, to finance teacher retirement. Senators said that is akin to deficit financing.

By contrast, the House passed Wilder's Literary Fund proposal today on a party-line vote of 57 to 43.

Andrews said Wilder's across-the-board furlough plan "simply won't work. We need nurses, prison guards and firemen" round-the-clock. The Senate advised state agencies to save money by making permanent layoffs or other cuts. Furloughs should be a last resort, and limited to no more than six days, the committee said. The House would limit furloughs to eight days.

Wilder's $151 million cut in aid to local schools, perhaps the most objectionable item to Northern Virginia politicians, would be trimmed by $56 million under the Senate plan and $40.7 million by the House.

"Without this action, we would . . . be forcing an even more painful choice on the localities to raise local taxes or cut the quality of their public schools," said Sen. Elmon T. Gray (D-Sussex), chairman of Finance's education subcommittee.

Fairfax County schools would get $166 million under the Senate plan, compared with $159 million under Wilder's plan.

Both money committees endorsed letting individual colleges raise tuition for both Virginia and out-of-state students to help offset more than $300 million in cuts imposed by Wilder.

Neither committee specified how much a student's tuition might rise, but at George Mason University, the total increase could be $4 million under the Senate plan. The Senate committee also approved an additional $10 million for student loans.

The two committees also agreeed to:

Keep open the state's 10 highway welcome centers, which Wilder wants to turn over to private operators, and to restore part of the cut in the state's tourism budget.

Insist that the Virginia Retirement System make a better offer for its proposed purchase of state-owned stock in RF&P Railroad.

Provide a $4 million annual subsidy to United Airlines to woo a proposed maintenance center to Dulles International Airport.

The Senate committee also wants to prohibit spending on a Washington bypass until its effect on nearby primary and secondary roads is assessed.

Staff writer John Ward Anderson contributed to this report.