President Bush's austere 1992 budget proposal brings both good and bad news to the Washington region, striking hard at some area programs while increasing the budgets of others, local officials said yesterday.

The bright spots for the metropolitan area are a proposed pay raise for federal employees and increased funding for Metro construction. But at the same time, federal money for road construction, needed to help alleviate the region's traffic problems, would be decreased under the Bush plan. Also, the budget calls for cuts in funding for the Chesapeake Bay cleanup program and some forms of education aid.

"It's going to be different this year, because the budget agreement throws a lot of programs together in one box and they have to compete," said Rep. Frank Wolf (R-Va.). "There does not appear to be a lot negative there. But it's not going to be easy."

The budget's conflicting results were most apparent in the District. The District's federal payment, its largest source of federal aid, would go up by $53.5 million, the first such increase in five years. But cuts in other federal programs would cost the District about $53 million.

The Virginia and Maryland suburbs would benefit from increased funding for scientific research; the budgets of agencies such as the National Science Foundation and NASA would go up markedly. But transportation programs in both states would suffer from a proposed cut in federal matching funds for road-building projects.

"It's kind of a half-loaf budget," said Rep. Tom McMillen (D-Md.) "There are critical needs in a lot of areas, particularly domestically. But the president is constrained in what he can do by the budget agreement, and it's a very hesitant budget."

For the first time in years, the president's budget proposal includes a proposed increase in construction money for the Metro system, a raise from $64 million to $80 million. But school systems around the region would be affected by plans to dramatically scale back so-called "impact aid" to schools that educate the children of military personnel.

The budget includes pay raises of 4.2 percent for the region's thousands of federal workers and does not recommend any changes in cost-of-living increases. But the Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay protection program would be cut by more than 15 percent, more than $1 million.

In the District, where a local budget crisis has made federal aid especially important, officials were guardedly optimistic about Bush's budget. The District's federal payment, which is designed to help pay for local services provided to federal properties, would rise from $430.5 million to $484 million.

District officials have complained that the recent five-year freeze in the federal payment effectively shifted part of the financial burden of the federal government onto District taxpayers.

Mayor Sharon Pratt Dixon said yesterday that the increase in the federal payment is "a move in the right direction." But Dixon said she wants to make the increase closer to $200 million in coming years.

In Maryland, Bush's budget provoked neither lavish praise nor anger. "This is more workable and more realistic than past administration budgets," said Monica Healy, Washington liaison for Gov. William Donald Schaefer. But she added that "student loans are being cut, heating assistance programs {for the poor} are being cut, and we are barely able to keep our heads above water on the Chesapeake Bay cleanup program."

Several high-technology and research agencies with facilities in Maryland and Northern Virginia would be among the budget's biggest winners. The National Institutes of Health would get $334 million in new money, a 7 percent increase in basic research funds. The National Science Foundation budget would go up 18 percent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's budget would go up 15 percent.

But Virginia, which benefited handsomely from the Reagan-era military buildup, faces potential losses as the defense budget begins to shrink. In the Tidewater area, the Newport News Shipbuilding Co. could lose one of its largest Navy contracts, the Seawolf submarine. And the Navy is eliminating one of its 14 aircraft carrier groups, a cut that could also hurt Norfolk.

"Virginia still ranks among the top five states in defense spending," said Sen. John W. Warner (R-Va.), "but there is going to be some budget impact here."