The Very Rev. Pedro Arrupe, 83, who as father general of the Jesuits from 1965 to 1983 guided the largest and most influential order in the Roman Catholic Church through a period of social and political ferment, activism and theological change, died of heart and lung ailments Feb. 5 at the Jesuit infirmary in Rome. He had been in ill health since suffering a crippling stroke in 1981.
Father Arrupe's election as leader of the Society of Jesus coincided with the ending of the Second Vatican Council, which set in motion vast changes throughout the church. Although he supported many of those changes, he was not always able to contain them within the bounds of orthodox Catholic doctrine.
During his stewardship he often faced conflicting pressures between the Jesuit traditions of loyalty to the pope and aggressive participation in worldly issues, such as liberation theology in Latin America, anti-war activism in the United States and agitation for the right of priests to marry.
He urged Jesuits to "fight with all our strength for a more just, more human and, in our view, more Christian world . . . to be the voice of those who have no voice, especially in Africa, India and Latin America," and he warned against "an exaggerated sense of loyalty to one's own church at the expense of charity."
In the United States, Father Arrupe praised the action of 27 Jesuit seminarians who turned in draft cards as a protest against the war in Vietnam as an "eloquent statement that should mark all Christians and all Jesuits who desire to carry the teaching of Christ to the wants and ills of our time."
But he balked at direct challenges to papal authority and disciplined priests in the Netherlands in disputes over issues of priestly celibacy and in the United States over opposition to the church position on birth control.
In 1980, he ordered Rep. Robert F. Drinan (D-Mass.) not to seek reelection to the House of Representatives in support of a papal ban on priests' holding partisan political office. He opposed the totality of Marxism as "something we cannot accept," but at the same time told his priests they could work with Marxist efforts for the common good.
Nevertheless, the Jesuits drew a stern rebuke from Pope John Paul II in 1979 for what he called "secularizing tendencies." In 1981, after Father Arrupe's stroke, the pope appointed the Rev. Paolo Dezza, a conservative theologian, to run the order temporarily. A year later the pope told Jesuit leaders to put aside political and social concerns, declaring that a priest's job "is not that of a doctor, a social worker, a politician or a union leader."
In 1983, after Father Arrupe's retirement, a Dutch Jesuit, the Rev. Peter-Hans Kovenbach, was elected the father general of the order. The holder of that position is sometimes called the "black pope," for the color of the order's clerical garb and because of its traditional closeness to the center of Vatican power.
The Society of Jesus was founded in 1534 by St. Ignatius Loyola during the Counter Reformation as an intellectually and spiritually disciplined elite corps devoted to serving the papacy wherever Catholicism was weak or challenged. The order operates universities and secondary schools all over the world and traditionally has been the vanguard of the Catholic Church in scholarship, education and the arts. Its members take a special vow of loyalty to the pope, but the relationship between the Jesuits and the papacy has rarely been comfortable or easy.
Reflecting a worldwide decline in Catholic priests, the number of Jesuit priests declined from about 36,000 to 26,000 during Father Arrupe's tenure as father general.
Father Arrupe, an ascetic-looking priest with a warm smile and a forceful presence, was born in Bilbao, Spain. He was a medical student at the University of Madrid before entering the Jesuit novitiate in 1927. He studied in Spain, the Netherlands, France and Germany and was ordained at St. Mary's College in Kansas in 1936. He was sent to Japan in 1938 and served there for the next 27 years. In 1958, he was named provincial when Japan became a separate Jesuit province.
He was master of the Jesuit novitiate at Nagatsuka, about four miles north of Hiroshima, when the first atomic bomb fell on Hiroshima in August 1945. He led one of the first rescue parties into the devastated city after the explosion, then turned the novitiate into an emergency hospital for survivors.
While serving as Jesuit provincial in Japan he developed a reputation as an imaginative and skilled administrator who presided over a substantial increase in the order's growth.
For most of the time since his retirement, Father Arrupe had lived in the Jesuit infirmary in Rome. He leaves no immediate survivors.
HENRY T. WILSON
Union and Goverment Lawyer
Henry T. Wilson, 72, a lawyer who had worked for the government and several labor groups, died Feb. 3 at Georgetown University Hospital. He had diabetes.
He began his labor career with the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees in Madison, Wis., in 1948. He came here when the union transferred its headquarters to Washington and was its general counsel when he left the federation in 1964.
From 1964 to 1977, Mr. Wilson worked for the Laborers' International Union of North America, where he was director of the public service employees department. He then spent two years as research director of the Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades.
From 1980 to 1982, he worked for the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service. He then was a labor liaison official with the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health before retiring in 1985.
Mr. Wilson, who lived in Bethesda, was a native of Kenosha, Wis. He was a 1940 graduate of the University of Wisconsin, and a 1948 graduate of its law school. He served with the Navy in the Mediterranean and Gulf of Mexico during World War II.
He was a member of River Road Unitarian Church.
Survivors include his wife, Donna, of Bethesda; three children, Diane Hollowell of Derwood, Md., Jeffrey Monroe Wilson of Bethesda and Bruce T. Wilson of Santa Fe, N.M.; a brother, Robert, of Appleton, Wis.; two sisters, Helen Wilson of Racine, Wis., and Jane Hannan of Kenosha; and four grandchildren.
M. RAYMOND MILLER
Auditor, Alexandria Volunteer
M. Raymond Miller, 85, a retired federal contracts auditor who was active as a volunteer in Alexandria, died of Parkinson's disease and heart ailments Jan. 30 at Alexandria Hospital.
Mr. Miller retired 20 years ago from the Department of Housing and Urban Development, where he worked in the Federal Housing Administration. A federal contracts auditor for nearly 30 years, he previously worked for the General Accounting Office.
He was a native of Richmond and attended Richmond Polytechnic Institute. He worked in Richmond as a certified public accountant during the 1930s, and served with the Army Air Corps during World War II. He came to Washington in 1943 as a lieutenant colonel assigned to the Renegotiation Board.
Mr. Miller was a past member of the vestry of Christ Church in Alexandria. He also had served as a volunteer director, treasurer and financial adviser to Alexandria Hospital and was treasurer of the Alexandria Association, a historical preservation group.
He was a member for 40 years of the Little Theatre of Alexandria, serving until his death as chairman of the board of the theater's financial trustees, and was a volunteer for 20 years with Meals on Wheels. He also belonged to the Church of the Resurrection.
His wife, Irma Fuqua Miller, died in 1985. He leaves no survivors.
GLADYS VAN HORN CURTIS
Gladys Van Horn Curtis, 57, a former partner in the Reston Insurance Agency, died of cancer Feb. 4 at Maine Medical Center in Portland, Maine. A former resident of Manassas, she had lived in Friendship, Maine, for the past three years.
Mrs. Curtis was born in Arlington. She graduated from Washington-Lee High School and Virginia Intermont College in Bristol.
As a young woman she worked for the Department of Agriculture, then in 1956 began her insurance career as a Nationwide agent in Fairfax. She later became office manager, and in 1973 became the vice president of Hamill Insurance Agency in Fairfax. She became a partner in the Reston Insurance Agency in the late 1970s, and continued working there until about four years ago. She also taught inland and ocean marine insurance at seminars across the country.
She was a former president of Insurance Women of Northern Virginia and chairman and editor of the National Association of Insurance Women Magazine.
Mrs. Curtis also was a former organist at Mount Vernon Baptist Church in Arlington, Calvary Hill Baptist Church in Fairfax and at Presbyterian Church of Fairfax.
Survivors include her husband of 36 years, Laurence P. Curtis of Friendship.
JOEL C. WISE
Joel C. Wise, 82, a retired lawyer and former government investigator who was a member of the National Lawyers Club and the Knights of Columbus, died of congestive heart failure Jan. 30 at the Manor Care nursing home in Wheaton.
He was an attorney and fraud investigator for the Federal Housing Administration for 20 years before retiring in 1956. He then co-founded the Washington law firm of Reed & Wise, and practiced commercial and real estate law until dissolving the firm and retiring in 1976.
Mr. Wise, who lived at Leisure World in Silver Spring, was a native of Chevy Chase. He was a graduate of McKinley Tech High School and Catholic University's law school. He served with the Navy in the Mediterranean during World War II.
Survivors include his wife, Anna S., of Leisure World; a son, Jarrett, of Silver Spring; three daughters, Mary Wise of Burtonsville and Joanne Williams and Anne Sumner, both of Silver Spring; two sisters, Agnes Moulden of Charleston, W.Va., and Helena Smith of California; 10 grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren.
FREDERIC C. WOODROUGH
Frederic C. Woodrough, 79, a retired National Security Agency linguist, died of cancer Feb. 2 at his home at Leisure World in Silver Spring.
Mr. Woodrough was born in Honolulu and grew up in Japan, where his father was an engineer. As a youth, he became fluent in Japanese.
He attended Creighton University in Nebraska, then in 1937 came to Washington to work as a Japanese linguist for the Navy Department. Until the end of World War II, he translated Japanese naval communications and worked on the breaking of Japanese shipping codes.
After the war, Mr. Woodrough worked for the Armed Forces Security Agency and the National Security Agency in this area and in Tokyo and Taipei, Taiwan. He retired in 1966.
At Leisure World he played golf and bridge. He was president of the Leisure World Tuesday Night Duplicate Bridge Club and the Leisure World chapter of the National Association of Retired Federal Employees.
Survivors include his wife of 50 years, Evelyn Clark Woodrough of Leisure World.
ORVILLE G. AUSEN
Orville G. Ausen, 75, a special agent for the FBI for 30 years before retiring in 1970, died of pneumonia Feb. 4 at Howard County Memorial Hospital. He lived in Columbia.
Through the years, he served with the FBI in South Dakota, Oklahoma, Michigan, Delaware, Baltimore and Washington. He came here in 1954 and served in the Washington Field Office before retiring from FBI headquarters.
Mr. Ausen was born in Jasper, Minn., and grew up in Sioux Falls, S.D. He was a graduate of Nettleton Business College in Sioux Falls and the Oklahoma City School of Law. He served with the Navy in the Southwest Pacific during World War II.
Survivors include his wife of 51 years, Marguerite Ausen of Columbia; two daughters, Kay Dickson of Fairfax and Lynn Donaldson of Ellicott City; a sister, Wilma Maddox of St. Joseph, Mo.; seven grandchildren; and a great-grandchild.
HARRIET A. EYRES
Gift Shop Owner
Harriet A. Eyres, 93, who with her sisters owned the Eyres Gift Shop on Wisconsin Avenue in Northwest Washington from the early 1960s until they sold it in 1988, died Feb. 5 at the St. Anthony Health Care Center in Minneapolis. She had a stroke.
Miss Eyres lived in Washington from the early 1930s until moving to Minneapolis in 1988. She was born in Lemars, Iowa, and graduated from Iowa State University.
After moving to Washington, she worked at the Justice Department. She later worked for the Library of Congress and the Federal Reserve Board.
In 1944 she and her sisters, Ethel Eyres and Helen Wilson, opened the Eyres Drug Store in Anacostia. They ran that business until the early 1960s, when they opened their gift shop on Wisconsin Avenue.
Ethel Eyres died in 1988. Helen Wilson survives and lives in Minneapolis.