PRAGUE -- Gustav Husak, 78, who replaced pro-democracy reformer Alexander Dubcek in 1969 and led Czechslovakia during two decades of Communist orthodoxy, died Nov. 18 in a hospital in the Slovak capital of Bratislava. He had cancer.
He replaced Dubcek as Communist Party general secretary in April 1969, eight months after Dubcek's effort to build "socialism with a human face," was crushed by a Soviet-led Warsaw Pact invasion.
With Soviet backing, Mr. Husak purged the party's ranks of more than 500,000 reformist members and reimposed communist orthodoxy on Czechoslovakia for the next 20 years.
In 1975, he became state president while continuing as party general secretary until 1987. He remained president until Dec. 10, 1989, when he was forced to resign by the "velvet revolution" that had suddenly thrown off decades of Communist rule.
When Mr. Husak took over the country, it was deeply embittered by the Warsaw Pact invasion of August 1968. He pledged to continue Dubcek's work in creating "socialism with a human face."
But he soon abandoned his promise under strong pressure from Moscow and from a powerful hardline faction that blocked attempts to reform the country's political and economic structures.
Over the years, he concentrated largely on improving economic conditions as a way of deflecting demands for greater individual freedoms and political reform. His unswerving loyalty to Moscow, accepting Soviet troops and medium-range nuclear missiles on Czechoslovak territory, gained him high favor in the Kremlin.
In 1988 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet awarded him the Order of Lenin, the Soviet Union's highest honor.
Only in early 1987, after Mikhail S. Gorbachev rose to power in Moscow, did Mr. Husak accept the need for genuine change. But Czechoslovakia, one of the more conservative East Bloc states, continued to lag behind as calls for democratic reform swept Eastern Europe in the second half of 1989.
His last task before leaving the presidency was to swear in the country's first government since 1948 that was not dominated by Communists.
A native Slovak, he was once jailed by the Communists for seeking more autonomy for the poor eastern region of Czechoslovakia. Yet he eventually rose to the highest levels of power and saw his ideas of communism and Slovak sovereignty shape Czechoslovakia through several generations.
Czechoslovakia's constitution was revised in 1968 to make it a federation of two nations -- Czech and Slovak. But since the fall of communism, Slovak leaders are criticizing that structure as Czech-dominated and once again are seeking more autonomy.
The huge investments that poured into Slovakia during Mr. Husak's rule were designed to boost the republic's heavy and military industry. But they turned out to be lethal for the Slovak economy now that it is being demilitarized and privatized under post-Communist market reforms.
Mr. Husak was born Jan. 10, 1913, into a Bratislava peasant family. He combined teaching and work in a factory with studies for a law degree.
He joined the Communist Party in 1933 and remained in the organization -- by then declared illegal -- during the Nazi occupation. He helped lead an abortive Slovak national uprising in 1944.
After the war, he eventually became one of the more sophisticated advocates of communism in his eastern republic.
He was arrested by Communist authorities in 1951 as a potential troublemaker for seeking more autonomy for Slovakia, but was released in 1960 and publicly rehabilitated and readmitted to the party.
After his release, he was employed as a construction worker and began a gradual political recovery.
His rehabilitation in the party was partly helped by fellow-Slovak Dubcek. In January 1968, he was made a deputy prime minister under Dubcek, who was by then overall party leader.
Mr. Husak's party membership was suspended in 1989, and he was expelled from the party for a second time in 1990.
After being ousted, he led a secluded life in his Bratislava home. He was hospitalized Nov. 8 and died one day after the second anniversary of the student protests that sparked the velvet revolution.
He had two sons by his first wife, who divorced him while he was in prison. His second wife died in a helicopter crash in 1977.
Earlier this month, the former Communist Party leader received last rites from Roman Catholic Archbishop Jan Sokol.
Louise Nazarian, 83, a Washington resident who had lived here since coming to this country in 1927, died Nov. 15 at Sibley Memorial Hospital. She had a heart ailment.
Mrs. Nazarian, who was born in Turkey, was a member of the Armenian Benevolent Union. During World War II, she did volunteer work for the American Red Cross. She also had done volunteer work for the Washington chapter of the American Cancer Society. She was a member of Metropolitan Memorial United Methodist Church in Washington.
Her husband, George A. Nazarian, died in 1968. Survivors include a daughter, Elsie Louise Nazarian of Washington; five grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. A son, George N., died in 1984.
GEORGE R. BARBER.
George R. Barber, 96, an Arlington resident since moving to the Washington area from Florida in 1981, died of congestive heart failure Nov. 12 at Powhatan Nursing Home in Falls Church.
Mr. Barber was a graduate of the Williamson School of Mechanical Trades in his native Pennsylvania. A mechanical engineer, he worked in phosphate mining in Florida and in power plant operations in Florida and Pennsylvania before retiring in 1961.
His wife of 58 years, the former Cordelia O'Neil, died in 1981. Survivors include two sons, George Jr., of Arlington, and Justus C., of King of Prussia, Pa.; five grandchildren; and six great-grandchildren.
JOSEPH T. BROWN.
Justice Department Employee
Joseph Thomas Brown, 66, a retired Justice Department employee who had lived in the Washington area since 1948, died of cardiac arrest Nov. 16 at his home in Silver Spring.
Mr. Brown, a native of Pennsylvania, served in the Navy during World War II. After the war, he worked for the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service before joining the Justice Department in 1950. He was a personnel manager when he retired in 1977.
He was a member of St. Catherine Laboure Catholic Church in Wheaton, the Knights of Columbus and the Wheaton Moose.
His marriage to the former Mary Teresa Hines ended in divorce.
Survivors include three sons, Joseph Patrick Brown of Rockville, Thomas Joseph Brown of Silver Spring and Kevin James Brown of Annapolis; and a brother, Harold, and a sister, Dorothy Anne Brown, both of West Pittston, Pa.
HARRY KYLE JR.
Government Press Operator
Harry Kyle Jr., 74, who worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for 27 years before retiring in 1975 as a press operator, died of cancer Nov. 15 at Fairfax Hospital.
He helped found the Baileys Crossroads Little League, St. Anthony's Catholic Church in Baileys Crossroads, and Queen of Apostles Catholic Church in Alexandria. He was a member of the American Legion and Knights of Columbus.
Mr. Kyle, an area resident since 1948 who lived in Alexandria, was a native of Pittsburgh. He served in the Army in Europe during World War II and won two Bronze Stars.
Survivors include his wife, Dorothy, of Alexandria; two sons, David, of Springfield, and Michael, of Alexandria; his mother, Marie Kyle, three brothers, Thomas, James and Charles, and a sister, Theresa Frisoli, all of Pittsburgh; and five grandchildren.
OLIVE L. COLSON
Former Area Resident
Olive L. Colson, 84, an area and Silver Spring resident for 40 years before 1988, when she moved to Odessa, Fla., died there at home Nov. 11 after a stroke.
During her years in Silver Spring, she was a member of Toastmasters International, the Silver Spring women's club and Christ Congregational Church. She also was a substitute teacher at Oak View Elementary School.
Mrs. Colson was born in Nebraska and grew up in Iowa. After graduating from William Woods College in Fulton, Mo., she taught for a time in one-room school in Colorado.
Her husband, DeVer Colson, whom she married in 1931, died in 1975. Survivors include a son, Jack, of Mount Airy; a daughter, Sylvia C. Benton of Odessa; two sisters, Christine Eastman of Chicago and Ada Karlson of Des Moines; seven grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren.
MARGARET C. GREEN.
Margaret C. Green, 69, a retired first-grade and reading teacher in Fairfax County schools, died of lung cancer Nov. 13 at the Hospice of Northern Virginia. She lived in Vienna.
Mrs. Green retired in 1985 after 20 years at Lewinsville and Camp Gardens elementary schools in McLean.
Her 33-year career in teaching began in McKees Rocks, Pa. She first moved to the Washington area in the 1950s, when she taught at Mount Daniels Elementary School in Falls Church. She later taught in Air Force dependents' schools in Japan and Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala., while accompanying her husband on Air Force assignments.
Mrs. Green was born in Claysville, Pa. A graduate of what is now Indiana University of Pennsylvania, she did graduate work in education at the University of Pittsburgh, George Mason University and the University of Virginia.
She was a member of the Virginia Education Association and the Fairfax Education Association.
Survivors include her husband, retired Air Force Maj. James F. Green of Vienna; two children, James F. Green III of Richmond and Sharon Green of Los Angeles; and a sister, Louise Rosen of Fort Meyers, Fla.