RICHMOND, NOV. 25 -- Fairfax Democrat James M. Scott filed papers today contesting his 17-vote defeat this month by Republican David G. Sanders in a race for the 53rd District House of Delegates seat.

Scott, who represented the Providence District on the Fairfax Board of Supervisors from 1972 through 1986, contends that "at least 27" ineligible voters cast ballots in the Nov. 5 election.

Results certified today by the state Board of Elections gave Sanders 6,508 votes to 6,491 for Scott.

Sanders, 31, chairman of the McLean Community Center, has 10 days to respond, according to House Clerk Bruce F. Jamerson, who said Scott's complaint was filed shortly before today's deadline by Tony Troy, a Richmond lawyer.

Scott, 53, assistant vice president for community affairs for Inova Health Systems, the parent company of Fairfax Hospital, outspent Saunders 3 to 1 in a district in which he had represented 10 of the 17 precincts during the 14 years he was on the board of supervisors. The district, newly created by redistricting, stretches north of Fairfax City, east to Merrifield and north to McLean.

Also today, Democrat C.T. "Tim" Lindstrom was certified the winner by one vote of a House seat in Charlottesville. The day after the election, preliminary figures indicated that Lindstrom's race against Peter T. Way had ended in a tie. Way has 10 days to decide if he wants a recount for the 58th District seat that was vacated by Rep. George F. Allen Jr. "Sure we'll ask for it," said Steve Haner, executive director of the Joint Republican Legislative Caucus. Haner said that recounts, in which all the ballots are reexamined in the presence of a judge, often change two or three votes. "And besides, it's paid for" by the state, he said, because of the closeness of the vote.

State Board of Elections Director Michael G. Brown announced today that the certified vote shows that Lindstrom, a land use lawyer, got 8,554 votes and Way, an Episcopal minister, got 8,553.

When the election night tie was reported, Brown said that if the results were not changed by the certified count, the tie would be broken by a drawing. If the certified results stand, the lineup in the House of Delegates for the 1992 legislative session will be 58 Democrats, 41 Republicans and one independent, or a net gain of one for the GOP.