Abdus Salam, 70, the Indian-born son of pious Muslims who won the Nobel Prize in physics and founded an institute to train Third World scientists, died Nov. 21 at his home in Oxford, England.
His death was reported by the Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of London, where he taught for more than 30 years. No cause of death was given.
Dr. Salam, one of the world's foremost theoretical physicists, was known for making significant contributions to the solution of one of the most challenging intellectual problems of the age: the development of a grand unifying theory of matter and energy that essentially would explain the structure and behavior of the entire universe.
The 1979 Nobel Prize, which he shared with two Americans, Steven Weinberg and Sheldon Glashow, honored him for his mathematical demonstration of the underlying connection between two basic natural forces and phenomena that previously had been believed separate and independent.
One was electromagnetism, which draws together electricity and magnetism, light waves and radio waves. The other was the "weak force," another of the primary forces of nature, but one that is not so easily recognized in the everyday world.
It acts on the subnuclear level, but it also accounts for some of the most essential processes in the universe. As Glashow pointed out in an interview yesterday, without the weak force, through which protons are transmuted into neutrons in a fusion reaction, "the sun could not shine."
Although electromagnetism and the weak force were once considered independent, "they have fit together very neatly now," Glashow said, in a connection that supports what is known as the "standard model" of nuclear and particle structure and interaction.
That fit, he said, helps explain why the standard model "is regarded as a scientific triumph." Although it leaves many questions unanswered, it nonetheless offers a way of ex plaining "everything we see about us."
Although the areas of physics in which Dr. Salam specialized appear "absolutely impractical," in Glashow's words, "he had a practical bent," expressed in his keen desire to train scientists from the less developed countries.
To this end, he founded the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy.
"What I wanted was to give the poor a place of their own where they would not have to beg anybody," he said. It was regarded during the Cold War as perhaps the only place where scientists from the East and West could work together.
Dr. Salam's share of the Nobel Prize award went to an international fund for young scientists.
Dr. Salam, descended from a long line of forebears known for Islamic learning and piety, was born in 1926, the son of a teacher and civil servant in the Punjab province of what was then British India.
At 14, he received the highest marks then recorded on a Punjab University entrance exam and began studying mathematics. A scholarship sent him to England to study at Cambridge University, where he obtained his doctorate.
Handed an exceptionally challenging cutting-edge problem for his doctoral research, he polished it off in five months, winning a prize and establishing himself as an intellectual prodigy. Dr. Salam spent a year on a fellowship at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J., and in 1951, he went back to the now independent Pakistan, as head of the mathematics department at Punjab University.
Biographers said Dr. Salam soon realized that he could do more for science in Pakistan by working in a place where he would be closer to the frontiers of science; in 1954, he returned to Cambridge as a professor.
Until he resigned in 1974, Dr. Salam served for 16 years on Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission. A 1992 story in The Washington Post reported "Western analysts" as saying disagreement existed over whether he might have had a role in the Pakistani nuclear weapons program. He preached for decades against nuclear weapons.
Glashow, Higgins professor of physics at Harvard University, called Dr. Salam "a beloved friend" who was "one of the most delightful characters in the world of physics" and a "truly lovable and gentle soul."
The Associated Press said that Dr. Salam lived in Oxford with his wife, Louise Johnson, and that they had one child. It quoted friends as saying he had four children from an earlier marriage. ROBERT D. POLINGCRS Specialist
Robert D. Poling, 52, a lawyer by training who had worked for the Library of Congress's Congressional Research Service for the last 26 years, died of throat cancer Nov. 10 at his home in Falls Church.
He was a specialist in legal ethics and American public law and was an authority on energy, communications and computer law. He had advised Congress during President Richard M. Nixon's impeachment; was the author of the 1974 CRS report, "Impeachment Defense for the President"; had advised Congress on the 1980 oil import adjustment program; and had written a 1984 report on the breakup of the Bell Telephone Co.
Mr. Poling also worked to increase the use of computers by the Library of Congress, taught courses in legal ethics to lawyers and members of Congress, and had served as acting assistant chief of the environment and natural resources policy division.
He was a recipient of the library's meritorious service award, special achievement award and library honor award. He also was a founder and first president of the Congressional Research Employees Association, or CREA. He helped negotiate contracts.
He had organized and led annual ethics seminars for the Federal Bar Association. He was a member of the Federal Energy Bar Association, the Computer Law Association and the Computer Law Forum and was an associate of the National Regulatory Research Institute.
Mr. Poling, an Ohio native, was a 1966 graduate of Ohio Wesleyan University and a 1969 graduate of Case Western University law school. He practiced law in Cleveland before moving to the Washington area in 1970 and joining the Library of Congress as a bill digester in the American law section of what was then the Legislative Research Service.
His hobbies included fishing, skiing, golf and softball.
Survivors include his wife, Carole, of Falls Church; his parents, Pearl and Grace Poling of Grafton, Ohio; and a brother, Michael, of Falls Church. WILLIAM CHARLES REDEEN Air Force and CIA Officer
William Charles Redeen, 73, a retired Air Force lieutenant colonel who was a highly decorated pilot in three wars and who also had worked for the Central Intelligence Agency and Federal Aviation Administration, died of prostate cancer Nov. 8 at his home in Reston.
Col. Redeen flew more than 500 combat missions. He was awarded three Silver Stars, seven Distinguished Flying Crosses and 39 Air Medals for service in Europe during World War II and in the wars in Korea and Vietnam. He also flew in the Berlin airlift and was reassigned to Germany as a nuclear alert pilot after the Korean War.
After retiring from the Air Force in 1967 as an adviser to the South Vietnamese Air Force, he was director of air operations in Laos for the CIA. He was assigned to CIA headquarters in the early 1970s and was an operations training director for the agency.
After joining the Federal Aviation Administration in the mid-1970s, he worked on general aviation projects.
He retired in 1981 as acting deputy assistant administrator.
Col. Redeen was a native of Wausaw, Wis., who attended the University of Minnesota.
He was a member of the Vienna Presbyterian Church and flying groups that included the Order of Daedalians. His interests included woodworking and roses.
Survivors include his wife of 42 years, Patsy R. Redeen of Reston; four children, Susan Redeen Cruz of Puerto Rico, Anne Redeen Linonis of Lanham, Patricia Redeen Jepsen of Randolph, N.J., and William Charles Redeen Jr. of Kensington; and seven grandchildren. MARY ROYCE Rockville Resident
Mary Weller de Grandpre Royce, 63, a Washington area resident since 1984 who had been a poet, painter and translator, died of cancer Nov. 21 at Suburban Hospital. She lived in Rockville.
Mrs. Royce was born in Tupper Lake, N.Y., and graduated from the Georgetown Visitation Convent and a university in France.
She also did graduate work in Italian at Middlebury College in Vermont.
Over the years, she worked as a French and Italian translator for the Army in France and later on a freelance basis for various American publications.
She had painted since 1984, and her work had been exhibited in the United States and Europe. She also had published poetry in English, French and Italian.
Her first husband, Majed E. Said, died in 1966. Survivors include her husband, Dr. William R. Royce of Rockville; two daughters from her first marriage, Mary Weller Richardson and Emily Ann Belanger, both of Sterling; a brother, Gerard de Grandpre of Scarborough, Maine; a sister, Alexandra de Grandpre of Glens Falls, N.Y.; and three grandchildren.