Raul S. Manglapus, 80, a former foreign secretary of the Philippines who during a long career in public life was known in his country and beyond as a leading spokesman for democracy, self-determination and social reform, died in the islands July 25, at his home in Alabang. He had cancer.
Mr. Manglapus was a foe of the authoritarian government of Ferdinand Marcos and lived in exile in Washington, lobbying against the regime, while Marcos held power.
After Marcos's ouster in 1986, Mr. Manglapus held the top foreign affairs job in the administration of Corazon Aquino.
In one of his most prominent appearances on the world stage and one that symbolized some of his most deeply held views, Mr. Manglapus was seen in the late 1980s as leading the effort to drive the United States from two giant military bases it maintained in the Philippines: Clark Air Base at Angeles City and Subic Bay Naval Base in Olongapo.
The Philippines had been given to the United States after the 1898 Spanish-American War. Even after the island nation was granted independence after World War II, many Filipinos were wary of what they viewed as too much residual U.S. influence.
As his nation's outspoken foreign secretary, Mr. Manglapus was known during the Aquino years to irritate American diplomats by emphasizing his nation's need to "slay the American father figure."
In 1996, four years after the last American warship had steamed out of Subic, Mr. Manglapus said he believed the turnover had worked out well.
"I think the slaying has happened -- nonviolently, diplomatically and to the satisfaction of the slayer and the slain."
He said there was "no victim and no culprit." What he had really sought, he added, "was the destruction of that image of the Americans as our all-knowing and all-powerful father figure in Filipino eyes. And that has happened."
Mr. Manglapus, once mentioned as a possible candidate to be United Nations secretary general, was a man of many talents and gifts, a figure who had played a variety of parts in the life of his country.
He was an author, businessman, playwright and musician, who for recreation had organized his own band of prominent Filipinos. President Clinton joined them on the saxophone during a 1996 visit to Manila.
In addition, since his days at college and in law school he was known as a powerful orator who won note for a speech in behalf of land reform titled "Land of Bondage, Land of the Free." It has become a rhetorical model for Philippine schoolchildren.
After the Japanese invaded the Philippines during World War II, Mr. Manglapus was an underground propagandist, making broadcasts and writing tracts against the enemy and in behalf of democracy. He was imprisoned and tortured, but escaped to join resistance fighters and was on the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay in 1945 to witness the Japanese surrender.
After the war, he was associated with one of his nation's best-known leaders of the period, Ramon Magsaysay. When Magsaysay named Mr. Manglapus foreign affairs secretary in 1957, he was said to be the youngest minister in the government.
He won election in 1961 to the Philippine senate and wrote what was described as his nation's first agrarian reform legislation. Four years later, he ran unsuccessfully for president.
Although at least one published study of Philippine affairs called Mr. Manglapus "one of the most secular of all Filipinos," he was closely identified for much of his career with an organization called the Christian Social Movement, which he was credited with founding in 1968.
Regarded as the a leader of a progressive faction in the 1971 constitutional convention, he had speaking engagements scheduled in the United States in 1972 when Marcos declared martial law. According to news accounts, troops were sent by night to his house to seize him, but he was already gone. Later his wife, Pacita, who had urged him not to try to return, and three of their children escaped to join him in this country.
While in the United States, he organized the Movement for a Free Philippines, and throughout his years of exile here worked to restore democracy at home. During his time in Washington, he taught at the School of International Service at American University.
After his service in the Aquino government, Mr. Manglapus remained active in public life as president of the Philippines' ruling political party, headed by Aquino's successor, Fidel V. Ramos.
In addition to his wife, survivors include four sons, a daughter and 12 grandchildren.