Virginia education officials are working on developing alternative licensing programs to increase the number of classroom teachers.
State officials said they want to look at ways to make it easier for professionals from noneducation backgrounds to become teachers, as a way of dealing with the teacher shortage.
But some teachers union officials have reservations, saying such programs could lower standards at a time when the state is demanding more accountability from public schools.
State education officials already were developing a special teacher licensing program for military personnel with teaching experience when the 1999 General Assembly directed the Virginia Board of Education to study alternative licensing for people from nonmilitary backgrounds as well. Education Department staff members said they hope to present a plan to the board next month.
State officials said that alternative licensing programs could be particularly valuable in recruiting individuals to teach in subject areas in which shortages are acute, including math, science, foreign language and special education.
The state also wants to increase the number of male teachers at the elementary level and minority teachers at all levels.
"We want to be able to establish a rich pool of qualified applicants that will enable us to respond to these shortage areas," said state Superintendent of Public Instruction Paul D. Stapleton.
Stapleton and other state officials said the alternative programs could be particularly attractive to mid-career professionals, such as those in math- and science-related fields.
"I know that there are scientists and mathematicians and other professionals who are distinguished in their fields who would love to get into teaching as a second career and who would be great in the classroom," said state Board of Education President Kirk T. Schroder.
Kelly Burk, president of the Loudoun Education Association, called the state board's effort "a very worthwhile endeavor," with the caveat that people from outside the teaching profession "should have the same method courses and the same standards and the same requirements" as teachers.
"A person's life experience can be very important and a very valuable tool," Burk said. "However . . . the training needs to ensure that the candidates really have the skills to handle a classroom of students of varying learning styles. Teaching is an art. It's not something everyone can learn.
"You can't walk into a classroom and not have the background and training and love and desire and be able to do it. You've got to have the background that will make you a good manager of children. The same techniques you use with adults you don't necessarily use in managing children's behaviors."
John Butterfield, president of the Fairfax Education Association, agreed that a successful career in science or math doesn't automatically translate into teaching potential.
"Unless they're held to the same rigorous standards . . . how can we be sure they're qualified to prepare students for these high-stakes tests?" Butterfield said, referring to Virginia's Standards of Learning exams.
"Life experience doesn't necessarily correlate into the skills needed to teach," Butterfield said. "I mean, even a physicist that worked for the National Science Foundation may not have the skills to stand in front of a class of 30 antsy high school students."
Schroder said teachers can't have it both ways--complaining about the teaching shortage but then not wanting state officials to take action to solve the problem.
"One of the major things I've heard from the unions is that we have an immediate need for more teachers," he said. "I don't sense that we have time to just hope the problem takes care of itself."
Schroder said the board is not looking at lowering standards for teachers. Any alternative licensing program would target individuals who are highly qualified in their chosen fields and may simply need course work in teaching methods, he said. As long as state officials stick to those guidelines, any concerns about standards "have little merit," he said.
"Most superintendents and others in the field are telling us that if we can get them qualified people, they'll make the decision as to whether they can handle the classroom or get them the resources and training to make sure they're ready for the classroom."
Fairfax schools Superintendent Daniel A. Domenech said retired military, business and other professionals could provide an excellent source of new teachers, provided they receive adequate training.
"Teaching isn't simply a matter of knowing your subject matter. . . . I would hope that as we consider allowing people to follow these alternative paths, that part of the requirement will include preparation in teaching techniques and methodology," Domenech said.
Earlier this month, educators from across Virginia joined state officials in hearing a presentation on alternative licensing programs in Texas and New Jersey.
Officials from those states say that 15 percent to 25 percent of their new teachers come from outside traditional training programs. In those states, individuals from non-teaching backgrounds can receive a teaching certificate after about a year in the classroom.
In New Jersey's program, alternatively licensed teachers receive intense mentoring and take 200 hours of training in their first year. The programs have been particularly useful in bringing more minorities and men into teaching, officials said.
Virginia already offers one alternative program in which people who meet academic qualifications can receive a three-year provisional license if a local school superintendent requests one from the state. Only about 7 percent of the 4,000 new teachers hired each year receive such a license, state officials said.