Charles Samuel Joelson


Charles Samuel Joelson, 83, a New Jersey Democrat who served in the House of Representatives from 1961 to 1971 and who helped President Lyndon B. Johnson enact his Great Society social-welfare reforms, died Aug. 17. The location and cause of his death were not reported.

In 1969, the Paterson, N.J., congressman successfully pushed a congressional spending amendment that provided funding to school libraries nationwide. He also became known as a civil rights advocate. He left Congress to become a state Superior Court judge.

Before his election, the Cornell University-trained lawyer practiced in Paterson. He had served as deputy state attorney general and as a Passaic County prosecutor.

Michael Sveda

Cyclamate Discoverer

Michael Sveda, 87, the researcher who discovered cyclamate, a sugar substitute used in soft drinks until it was banned in 1969, died Aug. 10 at his home in Stamford, Conn. He had Parkinson's disease. He was 87.

Mr. Sveda, a 1934 graduate of the University of Toledo in Ohio, accidentally discovered cyclamate a few years later while working as a chemical researcher for E.I.duPont de Nemours & Co. He brushed cigarette tobacco off his lip and noticed his finger tasted sweet and began examining the contents of all the beakers he had handled. He found the sweet one, converted the compound for commercial use and patented it.

Cyclamate had become a $1 billion business by the 1960s and quadrupled diet drinks' share of the soft-drink market. The FDA later banned the substance as a possible cancer hazard. Then, in 1976, a government-appointed panel declared there was no evidence that cyclamate caused cancer in animals, but the panel did not give the sugar substitute a clean bill of health.

Johnny Byrne

British Guitarist

Johnny Byrne, 59, a guitarist who played with Ringo Starr in the pre-Beatles band Rory Storm and the Hurricanes, died Aug. 18 after collapsing at home. The cause of death was not reported.

He and Alan Caldwell started playing together in 1957 in a band called The Raving Texans, which combined elements of jazz, blues, country and folk. The group became Rory Storm and the Hurricanes in 1959.

With Starr on drums, Rory Storm and the Hurricanes played at the Kaiserkeller in Hamburg in late 1960, getting star billing over the Beatles. Starr joined the Beatles in 1962, and the Hurricanes folded in 1967. Caldwell died in 1972, the same year Mr. Byrne went to work as an ambulance driver.

Edward L. Morgan

Nixon Staff Member

Edward L. Morgan, 61, a White House staff member who admitted to signing a bogus deed to Richard Nixon's gift of official vice presidential papers, died Aug. 6 in Santa Monica, Calif. The cause of death was not disclosed.

Nixon was seeking a $576,000 tax deduction for donating his papers to the National Archives, and the donation was actually made after expiration of a law providing deductions for such gifts. Mr. Morgan, who said he agreed to sign the deed and backdate it to take advantage of the law, pleaded guilty in 1974 to conspiring to defraud the government.

Mr. Morgan, who was not sent to prison because he cooperated in the prosecution of other Nixon associates, had been a lawyer on Nixon's White House domestic policy staff. He also had served during the Nixon administration as an assistant treasury secretary.

Nathaniel Kleitman

Sleep Researcher

Nathaniel Kleitman, 104, one of the discoverers of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep and its association with dreams, died Aug. 13 at a hospital in Beverly Hills, Calif. The cause of death was not reported.

He and a colleague, Eugene Aserinsky, discovered REM sleep in 1953 at the University of Chicago. They also determined that people dreamed during this type of sleep, reporting that when people were awakened from REM sleep they recalled having dreams, while those awakened from non-REM sleep did not.

Mr. Kleitman went on to determine that people dreamed for about two hours a night and that the average dream lasts from 10 to 30 minutes, and not for 10 seconds, as had been previously thought. He also became an expert in sleep deprivation.

Charles Macauley


Charles Macaulay, 72, an actor last seen as the often-defeated prosecutor on television's "The Perry Mason Mysteries," died of cancer Aug. 13 in Healdsburg, Calif.

He was a longtime actor and director in theater, TV and movies. Through his friendship with Raymond Burr, television's Perry Mason, Mr. Macaulay became a partner six years ago in the Raymond Burr Vineyards in Healdsburg.

Mr. Macaulay, a Kentucky native, graduated from the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts in London, where he won the First Judges Medal. In Hollywood he appeared as a guest star in over 200 television plays and co-starred in 23 feature films.

Howard Scammon

Theater Professor

Howard Scammon, 88, a former College of William and Mary professor whose theater instruction helped launch the careers of such actors as Glenn Close, Linda Lavin and Goldie Hawn, died Aug. 18 in Williamsburg. The cause of death was not reported.

A graduate of William and Mary, Mr. Scammon joined the college's theater and speech department in 1948 and retired as its chairman in 1976. He continued to teach part time for several years.

Hanoch Levin

Israeli Playwright

Hanoch Levin, 56, whose plays made him one of Israel's most controversial and respected writers, died Aug. 18 in Tel Aviv. The cause of death was not reported.

His 1968 play, "You, Me and the Next War," bitterly criticized what he saw as the delusions of grandeur that swept Israeli society in the wake of its victory in the 1967 Mideast war. It predicted that Israeli smugness would have dire consequences, including another war. His supporters argued he proved right when Israel was taken by surprise by the 1973 Middle East war.