John Robert Russell
Duke of Bedford
John Robert Russell, 85, the 13th Duke of Bedford, who turned his ancient Woburn Abbey into a tourist attraction -- complete with a fun fair and safari park -- to keep it in his family, died Oct. 25 in Santa Fe, N.M. No cause of death was given.
Facing heavy taxes after the deaths of his father and grandfather, the duke overcame his innate shyness to promote Woburn Abbey, north of London -- one of the first members of the British aristocracy to capitalize on the historic value of his home.
The abbey and its 16,000-acre estate, once the site of a Cistercian abbey, had belonged to the Russell family since King Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries in the 16th century. But by the time the duke inherited it in 1953, it was almost derelict. To the horror of some aristocrats, he installed a fun fair, souvenir shop and safari park and offered dinner with the family to paying guests. He even allowed a nudist film to be shot on the grounds.
Alina Pienkowska, 50, a founding member of Poland's Solidarity labor union and a crucial figure in the 1980 Gdansk shipyard strike that launched its struggle against communism, died of cancer Oct. 17 at a hospital in the Baltic Sea port of Gdansk.
In the 1970s, Ms. Pienkowska joined a clandestine anti-communist labor organization in Gdansk, the Free Trade Unions, where she met future Solidarity founder Lech Walesa and Bogdan Borusewicz, whom she married in 1983. When Gdansk workers laid down their tools Aug. 14, 1980, she is credited with getting word of the strike to the outside world.
With all telephone lines to the yard cut off by authorities except those in the shipyard clinic where she worked as a nurse, Ms. Pienkowska called fellow dissident Jacek Kuron, who spread the news across Poland -- launching a strike wave in hundreds of factories.
Two days later, she was one of a handful of activists who persuaded the strikers to continue their protest, despite promises of improved working conditions that satisfied some workers.
On Aug. 31, under pressure from the walkouts, communist authorities signed an agreement with the strikers, legalizing Solidarity and promising to ease political restrictions.
John Meredyth Lucas
Writer, Producer, Director
John Meredyth Lucas, 83, who wrote for classic television series including the original "Star Trek" and films including the 1950 "Dark City," which marked Charlton Heston's Hollywood debut, died of leukemia Oct. 19 in Los Angeles.
Mr. Lucas wrote scripts for medical shows, mysteries and science fiction. He wrote and directed several episodes of the pioneering television realism show "Medic," starring Richard Boone as Dr. Konrad Styner in the mid-1950s. In the 1960s, Lucas went on to write and produce the popular fictional medical series "Ben Casey" and followed that series with the long-running "Medical Center."
Among the mystery television series Mr. Lucas worked on were "Zorro," "The Fugitive," "Mannix" and "Quincy, M.E." His science-fiction series included not only the seminal "Star Trek," but also Rod Serling's "Night Gallery," the small screen "Planet of the Apes" and "The Six Million Dollar Man."