1. Using information from paragraph two, define the word "culture."
2. When do scientists at the Orangutan Foundation International believe that primates first developed culture?
3. How many researchers analyzed the results of years of observations of apes in Borneo and Sumatra?
4. After completing their study, what did scientists conclude about the shy Southeast Asian orangutan?
5. What evidence is there that orangutans had culture before they separated from the African apes millions of years ago?
6. List five routine behaviors orangutans have invented.
7. Why is the raspberry described as the opposite of the kiss-squeak?
8. How do you think members of the Borneo group discovered a way to change the sound of a kiss-squeak?
9. What types of cultural "trademarks" do human societies develop and pass along to future generations?
10. Which one of the orangutan's learned habits do you think is most like human behavior? Which is the most unusual?
Answer Key: (Wording may vary)
1. Culture is the ability to learn new habits and to pass them along to future generations.
2. Researchers now believe apes may have developed culture 14 million years ago.
3. Nine primate scientists studied the results of years of observations of the orangutan.
4. Experts believe the reddish-brown primates are able to learn new behaviors and teach them to their offspring.
5. Orangutan culture is practiced independently by different groups of apes in Borneo and Sumatra.
6. Answers will vary.
7. Air is blown out through tightly squeezed lips to make a raspberry noise and drawn in to make a kiss-squeak.
8. Answers will vary.
9. Human societies develop their own types of music, architecture, language, clothing and art.
10. Answers will vary.