Andrian Nikolayev

Soviet Cosmonaut

Andrian Nikolayev, 74, the Soviet cosmonaut whose 1962 flight into space set an endurance record, died July 3 after a heart attack. He died in Cheboksary, the capital of his native Chuvash Autonomous Republic in central Russia, where he was judging the All-Russian rural sport games.

Mr. Nikolayev became Russia's third cosmonaut to travel into space when he and Pavel Popovich were launched in separate crafts in August 1962. The pair made the first simultaneous flights, and Mr. Nikolayev set a separate endurance record, circling the Earth 64 times in 96 hours.

He returned to space in 1970 for his second and final mission onboard the Soyuz 9 craft. Altogether, he spent more than 200 hours in space, according to Russian media reports. He was married to Valentina Tereshkova, who in 1963 became the first woman to travel to space. They later divorced.

Hugh Shearer

Jamaican Prime Minister

Hugh Shearer, 81, prime minister of Jamaica from 1967 to 1972, the early years of his country's independence, died July 5 at his home in Kingston. The cause of death was not reported.

Mr. Shearer succeeded Donald Sangster, who died in office, to become prime minister five years after Jamaica gained independence from Britain.

Many credited him with overseeing one of Jamaica's most stable economic periods and for building dozens of primary schools. The economy grew at an average of 6 percent during his time in office, compared with 2.1 percent in 2003.

Robert Burchfield

Oxford English Dictionary Editor

Robert Burchfield, 81, a daring and innovative lexicographer who was chief editor of the Oxford English Dictionaries from 1971 to 1984, died July 5 in Oxfordshire, central England. No cause of death was reported.

From a young age, Mr. Burchfield loved the English language, which he described as "a monster accordion, stretchable at the whim of the editor, compressible ad lib." His interest in all brands of English went into the Oxford English Dictionaries, which he broadened to include words from North America, Australia, South Africa, India, Pakistan and the Caribbean, as well as his native New Zealand.

In the 1970s, he included a number of words in Maori -- the language of the people native to New Zealand -- in the Concise Oxford Dictionary, and he received anonymous death threats from those wanting to suppress racially or ethnically sensitive vocabulary.

He went to court to defend the OED's right to include derogatory terms, arguing that a dictionary describes language as it is, not as readers would like it to be.

James F. Arnold

Four Lads Singer

James F. Arnold, 72, an original member of the Four Lads singing group, died June 15 in Sacramento. He had lung cancer.

Born in Toronto, the son of a concert pianist, Mr. Arnold and three school friends formed a quartet that evolved into the Four Lads. The group began performing at clubs in Toronto in 1950 and signed a recording contract in 1952. Their hits included "Standing on the Corner," "Moments to Remember" and "Istanbul."

A tenor, he spent the past 20 years giving voice lessons in Sacramento.

Charles J. Hedlund

Oil Executive, Education Leader

Charles J. Hedlund, 86, a retired ExxonMobil Corp. executive who also was past chairman of the board of the American University in Cairo, died of cancer June 13 at a hospital in Summit, N.J.

Mr. Hedlund joined the American University board in the early 1980s after capping a 40-year career at Exxon as president of its Middle East operation. He helped guide the university through a major capital improvement campaign and an expansion of its academic programs.

He was on the board of the Nature Conservancy for 10 years, including serving as chairman in the mid-1980s, and was a founding chairman and chairman emeritus of Conservation International, a biodiversity advocacy organization.

Eric Douglas

Son of Actor

Eric Douglas, 46, the youngest son of Academy Award-winning actor Kirk Douglas who battled drug and alcohol problems for years, was found dead July 6 at his apartment building in New York, police said. There were no signs of foul play, police said. An autopsy was planned.

Eric Douglas was an aspiring actor and comedian, but he never found the success of his father or of his Oscar-winning half brother, Michael Douglas. Eric Douglas had an acting career in the 1980s and early 1990s, playing supporting roles in movies such as "Delta Force 3: The Killing Game."

In 1997, he pleaded guilty to cocaine possession after his arrest for accepting a shipment of more than 1,000 antidepressant pills. A year earlier, he had spent the night in jail after smashing his rental car into two vehicles in an alleged drunken-driving incident.

Actor Eric Douglas in 2001. He was found dead at his New York home.In August 1962, Andrian Nikolayev became Russia's third cosmonaut to travel into space.