Herbert Hill, 80, who served as the NAACP's labor secretary from 1953 to 1977 and later helped establish the Black Studies Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, died Aug. 15 at a hospice in Madison, Wis. No cause of death was reported.
Among other things, Mr. Hill, who was white, worked to desegregate the nation's building trades unions and the International Ladies Garment Workers Union while he held his post with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
He then joined the university, where he served as a professor until he retired in 1997 while continuing to advise and consult with civil rights activists and organizations. He wrote numerous articles on race, workplace discrimination by organized labor, black literature and jazz and edited three anthologies of black writing.
Peggy Peterman, 67, a 31-year veteran at the St. Petersburg Times who was influential in persuading the paper to discontinue its Negro news section in the 1960s, died Aug. 19. She had heart disease.
The daughter of civil rights activist William P. Mitchell, Ms. Peterman joined the Times in 1965, reporting for the Negro news page, which was distributed only to black neighborhoods. She urged her white editors to incorporate news of the black community in the entire newspaper, and the Negro news page was abolished in 1967. After 20 years as a reporter, she became a columnist and joined the editorial board in 1994.
"My ambition as a journalist was always to help the public understand who and what the African-American family and culture was all about," Ms. Peterman wrote in 1996, when she retired.
Clyde S. Cahill
Clyde S. Cahill, 81, a senior U.S. District judge whose fervent commitment to civil rights was spurred by a 1941 lynching, died Aug. 18 at his home in St. Louis. No cause of death was reported.
Judge Cahill said the lynching of a black man, Cleo Wright, for allegedly raping a white woman in the southeast Missouri town of Sikeston sparked his interest in civil rights.
President Jimmy Carter appointed Judge Cahill to U.S. District Court in St. Louis in 1980, making him the first black federal trial judge there. The judge was critical of federal guidelines that require long prison sentences in drug cases.
Timothy G. Elbourne
Timothy G. Elbourne, 65, a former Nixon White House aide who traveled widely to prepare media coverage for presidential trips, including the historic 1972 journey to China, died Aug. 7 at his home in Idyllwild, Calif. No cause of death was reported.
Mr. Elbourne was an advance assistant in Nixon's first administration after working on the 1968 presidential campaign with Nixon press secretary Ronald Ziegler, who was his former college roommate.
After leaving the White House, he became president of the new Walt Disney Travel Co.
Frank Sanache, 86, one of the last of the "code-talkers" from the Meskwaki Indian tribe who used their language as a secret code during World War II, died Aug. 21, it was reported in Tama, Iowa. No cause of death was reported.
The Meskwaki, based in Tama County, Iowa, were among 18 tribes that contributed code-talkers during the war. But their achievements went largely unnoticed because the code was classified until 1968.
Mr. Sanache had little opportunity to use his language skills after being shipped with the Army to North Africa because of the limited numbers of the Meskwakis and the short range of walkie-talkies. He was captured just five months after he arrived in North Africa and spent 28 months as a prisoner of war.
After his return to Iowa, he worked for 38 years at a paper mill.
Paul 'Mousie' Garner
Paul "Mousie" Garner, 95, a native Washingtonian and diminutive comic actor who appeared on the vaudeville stage, in films, on television and sometimes with some of the Three Stooges, died Aug. 8 at a hospital in Glendale, Calif. No cause of death was reported.
Mr. Garner, who stood 5-feet-4, earned his nickname by perfecting the stage persona of a simpering, silly jokester with a penchant for shyness. He came to be called "The Grand Old Man of Vaudeville" in his later years, being one of the last actors still performing in that style.
He also wrote books about his life, career and experiences with the Three Stooges, who over the years included Moses "Moe" Howard, Jerome "Curly" Howard, Samuel "Shemp" Howard, Larry Fine, Joe Besser and "Curly Joe" De Rita. Mr. Garner also formed the Rollicking Mousie Garner Trio, in which he was known for getting smashed over the head with breakable ukuleles.