Lord Lichfield, 66, the official photographer at the 1981 wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, died Nov. 11 at John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, a spokesman for his office said. He had suffered a stroke.
Buckingham Palace said the queen was "deeply saddened" by the death of Mr. Lichfield, a cousin who often took portraits for the royal family.
In a career spanning 40 years, he photographed a host of stars, including Michael Caine, Mick Jagger, Roman Polanski and David Hockney.
He photographed former prime minister Margaret Thatcher last month, to mark her 80th birthday.
Born Thomas Patrick John Anson, he was the son of Viscount Anson and Princess Anne of Denmark, the niece of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, who died in 2002.
The 5th Earl of Lichfield first picked up a camera at age 6, but his passion soon got him into trouble: Snapshots he took of the young queen at a cricket match at Eton were confiscated by an official.
He began working on his own in the early 1960s, shooting pictures for Life and Queen magazines and a number of national newspapers. He later secured a five-year contract from legendary fashion editor Diana Vreeland at Vogue.
Mr. Lichfield was best known for images that captured the "Swinging London" spirit of the 1960s.
"We did behave quite badly, but it wasn't so much an immoral as an amoral decade," he once said.
"I drank too much -- we all did -- smoked the odd joint and saw the world on the arm of a pretty girl at somebody else's expense."
Among his most celebrated photos was a group portrait of Polanski, Hockney and writer Lady Antonia Fraser.
In July 1981, at the wedding of Charles and Diana, Lichfield used a soccer referee's whistle to get the attention of participants in group shots.
He also photographed the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, the former King Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson, during their exile in Paris after Edward's abdication.
He was having trouble getting the couple to smile, so he deliberately fell off his chair to get the laugh he wanted for his photo.
His marriage to Leonora Grosvenor ended in divorce.
Survivors include a son and two daughters.