Cardinal Leo Scheffczyk

German Theologian

Cardinal Leo Scheffczyk, a conservative theologian who, due to his age, did not participate in the conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI in April, has died, his office in Munich reported Dec. 9. He was 85.

In a telegram, the pope praised Scheffczyk for his contributions to the study of theology, which include 80 published books.

"He dedicated his rich, priestly and academic life . . . to the depths of theology and proclamation of the truth of God," the pope said.

Scheffczyk was elevated to the rank of cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II.

Born in 1920 in the northeastern German city of Beuthen, which is now Bytom, Poland, Scheffczyk moved to Bavaria following the end of World War II. There, he began his theology studies first in Freising and later at the University of Munich.

Scheffczyk became a professor of theology, teaching for 20 years at the University of Munich's Theology Faculty, where Pope Benedict XVI also earned his doctoral degree.

The focus of much of Scheffczyk's study was the Roman Catholic doctrine, including a 1996 eight-volume book on "Catholic Dogma" that was published with his student Anton Ziegenaus and became a standard work of the Catholic Church.

Marvin Braude

Anti-Smoking Advocate

Marvin Braude, 85, who as a Los Angeles City Council member wrote a landmark indoor smoking ban that became a model for cities nationwide, died of pneumonia Dec. 7 at Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, Calif.

Mr. Braude (pronounced BROW-dee), a Chicago native and a former two-pack-a-day smoker, may be best known nationally for his long campaign against secondhand smoke, which he viewed as air pollution. In 1973, Mr. Braude suggested that smoke-free zones be set up in bars, restaurants and theaters. Twenty years later, Los Angeles became, at the time, the largest city in the nation to ban all smoking inside restaurants.

One of his earliest political fights was a successful petition drive to prevent construction of a freeway in the Santa Monica Mountains near his home. Years later, he was instrumental in helping create a 50,000-acre public park in the Santa Monica Mountains. An avid bicyclist, he also pushed through a 19-mile beachside bicycle path.

He also fought and won initiative battles in the 1980s to ban oil drilling off the entire city coastline and to restrict development in about three-quarters of the city.

David S. Saxon

Physicist, University President

David S. Saxon, 85, a physicist who was fired from the University of California during the communism scare in the 1950s but went on to lead the renowned school system and later the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, died Dec. 8 at UCLA Medical Center. No cause of death was reported.

He started his career as an assistant professor of theoretical nuclear physics at UCLA in 1947. Three years later he was among 31 faculty members fired for refusing to sign an oath required by the University of California's Board of Regents declaring they were not members of the Communist Party. Faculty objected to the oath on the grounds it violated academic independence. The state Supreme Court later ruled in favor of non-signers, and Mr. Saxon was reinstated. He eventually rose to become UCLA executive chancellor and UC president from 1975 to 1983.

In 1983, Mr. Saxon became chairman of the MIT Corp., the governing board of MIT. He held that position until 1990, when he returned to UCLA as an emeritus faculty member of the department of physics and astronomy.