AFTER THE MOST DRAMATIC YEAR in its recent political history, a degree of order has asserted itself in the final month of the Minnesota campaigns. Gov. Rudy Perpich (D), 50, the Iron Range populist dentist who moved up from lieutenant governor last year, is favored to win a full term against veteran Rep. Albert H. Quie (R), 55. Despite 20 years in the House, Quie apparently never found an opening in his first statewide race, and the latest Minneapolis Tribune poll gives Perpich a 9-point lead.

In one Senate race, Republicans now seem very likely to pick up a Democratic seat. Robert E. Short (D), 61, onetime owner of the Washington Senators, has not been able to halt massive liberal defections resulting from the conservative stands and roughhouse tactics used in the primary campaign victory over Rep. Donald M. Fraser (D).Short has been dropping like a stone in private polls of both parties, and David L. Durenberger (R), 44, a Minneapolis lawyer and political moderate, is now favored to fill out the four years in the term of the late Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey (D).

In the second Senate race, Sen. Wendell R. Anderson (D), who resigned as governor and had Perpich appoint him to the seat, is a slight underdog, but probably not out of the race against Rudy Boschwitz (R), 48, a plywood millionaire.The latest Minneapolis Tribune poll gave Boschwitz a 49-46 lead, but aggressive campaigning by both men and a Friday night visit from President Carter put the outcome in doubt.

There is a close contest in the House seat Quie left, and one other House contest has both parties perplexed. Republicans believe Rep. Arlan Stangeland (R), winner of a 1977 special election, has solidly entrenched himself in his farm district, and Democrats think state Rep. Gene R. Wenstrom (D) has an excellent chance to bring it back to the Democratic column. They can't both be right.