Besides the main nuclear-weapons issues, other topics that may come up at the Geneva summit meeting include: ARMS CONTROL:
*CONVENTIONAL FORCES: The United States seeks an end to the stalemate at the 12-year-old Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction (MBFR) talks in Vienna and wants a verifiable agreement to reduce the size of ground forces in Central Europe. The talks have been deadlocked over disagreement on the number of Warsaw Pact troops in the area.
*CONFIDENCE-BUILDING MEASURES: Washington may reiterate NATO proposals for exchanges of information on military forces in Europe and notification and on-site inspection of military maneuvers. The Soviets, in return, want a joint pledge of no first use of nuclear weapons. Such an agreement is considered possible, but Washington has said a no-first-use pledge, since it is unverifiable, would mean little. It would also require a change in the NATO strategy of offsetting the numerical superiority of the Warsaw Pact by reserving the right to use nuclear weapons to repel a conventional attack.
*NUCLEAR TESTING: The Soviets unilaterally declared a moratorium on nuclear testing from last Aug. 6 until Dec. 31 and invited the United States to join the moratorium. But Washington has refused and opposes a total test-ban treaty, on grounds that a full ban is unverifiable and would have little effect in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons.
*NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION: Both sides agree that the spread of nuclear weapons should be stopped, and some statement to work toward this end is expected.
*CHEMICAL WEAPONS: Both sides are working toward some kind of global ban on chemical weapons, but the United States insists that any agreement include methods of verification of destruction of biochemical weapons stockpiles. The Soviets have said they would support creation of a zone in Europe free of chemical weapons. REGIONAL:
At the United Nations last month, President Reagan said regional issues would be a "central" topic at the summit. He cited five areas of conflict and proposed a three-stage peace process to address them -- negotiations between the warring parties, then U.S.-Soviet talks to find ways to support regional and international peacemaking efforts and, if those stages are successful, superpower assistance in reintegrating the war-torn nations into the world economy. The Soviets are expected to play down the regional issues, preferring to keep the focus on arms control. But they may agree to continue regular "dialogue and consultations" with the United States on regional issues, with the understanding that the talks are not "negotiations."
*AFGHANISTAN: Soviet troops entered Afghanistan in 1979 and installed a pro-Soviet government. The United States wants withdrawal of the 118,000 Soviet troops, restoration of independence and self-determination for Afghanistan. But the Soviets insist on direct negotiations between Pakistan and Afghanistan while Pakistan, with U.S. backing, opposes such talks on grounds that they would constitute recognition of a puppet regime. When the United States brings up Afghanistan, the Soviets bring up Grenada. Diplomats see an Afghan agreement as unlikely.
*NICARAGUA: The United States says the Soviet-backed Sandinista regime has betrayed the democratic goals of the 1979 revolution. It wants implementation of promises guaranteeing full democracy and protection of rights, a halt to Nicaragua's aid to rebellions elsewhere in Central America, an end to its military-security ties with the Soviet Bloc and Cuba and a reduction of its military to a level compatible with those of other regional states.
*ANGOLA-NAMIBIA: Cuban troops -- an estimated 35,000 now -- and Soviet advisers have been in Angola since 1975, helping the Marxists stay in power. The United States wants withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola and South African troops from Namibia as part of an agreement for Namibian independence, and it wants the Soviet Union to agree to play a constructive role in promoting peace in Angola.
*CAMBODIA: The United States opposes the Soviet-backed Vietnamese invasion and occupation of Cambodia and says the related Soviet military base at Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam, raises the threat of military incidents between U.S. and Soviet forces. It wants the Soviets to press Vietnam for withdrawal from Cambodia and a political settlement there on the basis of U.N. resolutions.
*ETHIOPIA: The United States says it believes that no military solution is possible in Ethiopia, where a Marxist regime backed by 1,700 Soviet military advisers and 2,500 Cuban troops is fighting several insurgencies, some supported by its Soviet-allied neighbors. Washington says Moscow has responsibility to help Ethiopia bring about peace within the country and with its neighbors.
Others that may be discussed:
*MIDDLE EAST: U.S. policy has been to exclude the Soviet Union from participation in U.S. efforts toward Mideast peace, but the Soviets, closely allied with Syria, seek a greater role. The United States may urge Moscow to resume diplomatic relations with Israel. It may press its charge that Moscow has supported terrorism and military adventurism by Palestinians, Syria, Libya and South Yemen and ask it to join in an antiterrorism declaration.
*SOUTH AFRICA: The Soviet Union blames continuing violence and racial segregation in South Africa on the Reagan administration's support for the country's white-minority government and may press that point. BILATERAL:
*FUTURE TALKS: The United States seeks an agreement for regular future talks, including summit meetings and consultations at other levels, such as those the two sides have held on regional trouble spots. Reagan said this month that he would like annual summits, and U.S. allies strongly favor continued dialogue. Moscow is cautious about committing itself to further talks, feeling it has risked much prestige on this summit, and wants to size up the U.S. side before agreeing.
*EXCHANGE PROGRAMS: A 1972 umbrella agreement covering scientific, cultural and educational exchanges has largely lapsed because of U.S. displeasure with Soviet policies. A new agreement is likely at the summit. It would probably include cultural exchanges, exchanges of economic and business exhibits and exchanges of students and teachers. Washington is expected to insist that, in a new agreement, the Soviets shift their attentions from militarily sensitive subjects and broaden the areas available for study by Americans. Washington wants to open a U.S. cultural center in Moscow, where Soviets could freely read U.S. publications, and it seeks access for U.S. officials to Soviet radio and television.
*CONSULAR: The Soviets want a consulate in New York, and the United States wants one in Kiev. Discussion of this was suspended at the time of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, but it reportedly is close to agreement now.
*TRADE: Expanded trade has always been a goal of both sides, but past agreements have brought little improvement and expectations are low. If the Soviets seek most-favored-nation status for Soviet exports to the United States, Washington is expected to insist on improved human rights and emigration practices.
*CIVIL AVIATION: The United States revoked Aeroflot's landing rights here following imposition of martial law in Poland, and the Soviets then revoked Pan Am's rights. Washington has conditioned a new agreement on improvements in the North Pacific air-control situation, to prevent incidents such as the shooting down in 1983 of the Korean Air Lines plane that flew over Soviet territory. The Soviets are expected to make approval of a new landing-rights agreement conditional on U.S. agreement to consular and exchange programs.
*SANCTIONS: Some of the U.S. sanctions imposed as a result of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the downing of the Korean Airlines plane and the declaration of martial law in Poland remain. Their removal may be a topic of discussion, and some may be dropped as part of the approval of new bilateral agreements. HUMAN RIGHTS:
The United States has said it will raise human-rights issues and it has a record of doing so at high-level meetings. Above all, it is expected to press Moscow to live up to its commitments under the 1975 Helsinki Accords. Moscow publicly insists that human rights is an internal Soviet issue but has been responsive to some U.S. requests, usually to gain commercial or other advantages. Secretary of State George P. Shultz said after his talks in Moscow this month that the issue of human rights was discussed at length, and his remarks suggested to some that a major new Soviet human-rights initiative may be in the works.
*Washington is likely to urge the Soviets to ease restrictions on emigration, especially of Jews and national minorities. It probably will urge freedom for prominent dissidents such as Andrei Sakharov and Anatoly Scharansky and release of other political prisoners.
*The United States also is expected to call for an end to jamming of western radio broadcasts and persecution of religious activists, improved working conditions for journalists and freer dissemination of western publications.
*The Soviets have recently waged a press campaign publicizing alleged U.S. human-rights violations, especially the case of Leonard Peltier, an American Indian activist convicted of killing two FBI agents in a shoot-out in South Dakota in 1975.