I can probably trace my advocacy career to the fact that only a couple of years into my teaching career I was told that I did not need a promotion to associate professor because my husband could support me. This was before sex discrimination in faculty employment was illegal, but it was clear to me that it was immoral and certainly a violation of appropriate academic standards. The outcome was that, although it took nearly a year, I got my promotion, and the president of the university got fired. That led me to believe that if you are right and if you fight hard enough, you win. I've since learned otherwise, but I guess that I've never stopped fighting.

. . . The initiatives of the last 15 years have not carried us as far as we should like. Toward 2001, what can we do, what do we want, how can we get where we want to be?

I do not envision a utopia -- at least not in 15 years. I do not expect that women college and university presidents will be the norm; I do not expect that when the U.S. government turns to academe for expertise we will inevitably have a woman secretary of state or presidential science adviser. What I should hope is that having a man in each of these positions will not be the norm.

. . . We must think of women for leadership positions, we must -- men and women -- make the networking connections work to get women into academic leadership roles. . . . And we must choose women for the same reasons we choose men.