From Andrei Sakharov's commencement address to The College of Staten Island, read for him by Kurt Vonnegut on June 14:

An uncommonly cruel war, causing terrible human suffering, has been waged for more than seven years in Afghanistan. The Soviet army should be withdrawn without delay so that the Afghan people can settle their domestic problems for themselves. The process should be supervised by United Nations troops in order to prevent bloodshed and chaos. Any Afghans who wish to emigrate under such circumstances, whether to the Soviet Union, to other socialist countries, or elsewhere, should be permitted to do so. While negotiations are in progress -- or still better, from today on -- the bombing of noncombatants and hospitals should be ended.

The changes in the internal life of the Soviet Union which have been proposed by {Mikhail} Gorbachev are important and necessary. I want to believe that his intentions are serious. But what has been accomplished to date is merely a beginning. It has only scratched the surface of the monolith of Soviet society. In many respects the prospects are contradictory. This holds true for glasnost (openness), for so-called individual enterprise and for the crucial personnel questions which Gorbachev brought up at the January plenum of the Central Committee. . . .

About 160 prisoners have been released -- something we did not dare to hope for in the past. But the process is far from complete. We know by name more than 500 remaining prisoners of conscience. And there are probably several hundred whom we know nothing about. Prisoners of conscience held in the special regimen camp and in psychiatric hospitals and those sentenced for slandering the Soviet system under Article 190-1 have not been freed