From remarks by West German academic Heinrich Vogel at a Radio Free Europe Seminar on "The U.S.S.R. Under Gorbachev -- Glasnost and Its Implications":

Don't expect any official statements from me. I'd rather start out by referring to a very subtle and convincing anecdote which is told in Moscow these days: A man goes to the doctor and says, "Doctor, I have a problem, but I need two specialists; one for the ears, nose and throat and one for the eyes." Both specialists are brought in and ask the man about his problem. He says: "Gentlemen, I hope very much that you will be able to help me. It's a very worrying state I'm in. I don't see what I hear."

Now, so much has been said about glasnost that I'd like to add a fourth dimension to it. I rather doubt the possibility of real control of any Soviet leader over social processes to be initiated from above, within the system. There is little doubt that Gorbachev is in a deep dilemma. He is running against the clock. He knows that, and this is the new language of urgency. If no change, no change in perestroika {restructuring}, if no high levels ofproductivity are brought about in that system, the Soviet Union will not reach the year 2000 as a great power with pride. This, I think, is the coreof his inner belief and his conviction, and this is not an optimistic view, not at all. . . .

Whatever you do, it takes time to implement your intentions. Let's keep that in mind. Quick success is unavailable -- not just because there is political resistance . . . but because things are difficult. This is a big country. This is a country where huge bureaucracies would be necessary even if it were run by a democratic system.