From "Africa: One Year Later," a report issued on Oct. 15 by the secretary general of the United Nations:

Even in this relatively short time, a number of important trends in the implementation of the Programme {of Action} have become discernible. Some of these trends are positive, but overall there are no grounds for complacency; on the contrary, there are grounds for serious concern.

Most important and most assuring has been the determination with which African countries have engaged in the implementation of the Programme. A large and growing number . . . have embarked on significant policy reforms and structural adjustment measures aimed at bringing about an accelerated recovery of their economies and new foundations for more sustainable development. Often, these measures have been instituted at severe social cost and have been pressed forward in the face of formidable political risks. . . .

Unfortunately, . . . the external environment which was already so adverse when the Programme of Action was adopted has become even more aggravated. All evidence suggests that the financial requirements indicated in the Programme only last year are increasing, at a time when commodity and other export earnings are dangerously inadequate, and when Africa's debt and debt-servicing problems have worsened . . . .

In conclusion, the secretary general warns the international community at this time that, in every respect, Africa's margins for maneuver to implement the Programme of Action are being reduced. . . . Nothing less than the best coordination of resources flows and the most energetic partnership between Africa and the international community will ensure adequate forward momentum towards the Programme's goals.