* "A jet fuel fireball erupted upon impact and shot down at least one bank of elevators. The fireball exploded onto numerous lower floors . . . . The burning jet fuel immediately created thick, black smoke that enveloped the upper floors and roof of the North Tower. . . . Within ten minutes of impact, smoke was beginning to rise to the upper floors in debilitating volumes and isolated fires were reported, although there were some pockets of refuge."

* "The hijackers [of Flight 93] must have judged that the passengers were only seconds from overcoming them. The airplane headed down; the control wheel was pulled hard to the right. The airplane rolled onto its back, and one of the hijackers began shouting, 'Allah is the greatest! Allah is the greatest!'

"With the sounds of the passenger counterattack continuing, the aircraft [crashed] about 20 minutes' flying time from Washington, D.C. [The hijacking pilot's] objective was to crash his airliner into symbols of the American Republic, the Capitol or the White House. He was defeated by the alerted, unarmed passengers of United 93."

* "We recommend significant changes in the organization of the government. We know that the quality of the people is more important than the quality of the wiring diagrams. Some of the saddest aspects of the 9/11 story are the outstanding efforts of so many individual officials straining, often without success, against the boundaries of the possible. Good people can overcome bad structures. They should not have to."

"Faced with insufferable heat, smoke, and fire, and with no prospect for relief, some [in the North Tower] jumped or fell from the building.""[United Flight 93] plowed into an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, at 580 miles per hour," above; below, "[a National Guard pilot] spotted [American Flight 77] and . . . seconds after impact, reported to the control tower: 'looks like that aircraft crashed into the Pentagon, sir.' "Ziad Jarrah, hijack pilot of United Flight 93Thomas H. Kean, commission chair