Crayola crayons came in eight straightforward colors when they were introduced in 1903: black, blue, brown, green, violet, yellow, orange and red.Today, Crayola makes crayons in 120 colors, including "Inch Worm," "Jazzberry Jam," "Tropical Rain Forest," "Manatee," "Bittersweet" and "Razzmatazz." Manatee . . . Bittersweet . . . Razzmatazz? What mysterious shades are those? And what's up with the other vague but vaguely evocative flavor and color names that are all the rage these days, like Ben and Jerry's "Fossil Fuel" or "Chubby Hubby" ice cream flavors, Benjamin Moore's "Sweet Daphne" and "Castleton Mist" paints, or that new nail polish color "Trailer Trash," manufactured by Hard Candy Cosmetics?
That's what Elizabeth G. Miller of Boston College and Barbara E. Kahn of the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania wanted to find out when they embarked on a series of experiments to see whether people responded more positively to ambiguous color and flavor names or to more specific monikers. They reported their findings in the latest issue of the Journal of Consumer Research.
Miller and Kahn discovered that there's method -- and perhaps even profit -- to this maddening name game. In one test, 100 students taking part in an unrelated study were told that after they had finished the research task they should select jelly beans from six containers as a reward for their participation. They were told that each container held a different flavor of jelly bean. Half the students saw containers labeled with ambiguous names ("white Ireland," "moody blue"), while the other half saw those same containers with more specific descriptive names ("marshmallow white," "blueberry blue"). As the researchers had hypothesized, students took nearly three times as many jelly beans on average from a container that bore a vague name as from one that carried a specific name. In another study involving 60 students, participants were told to pretend they were ordering sweaters from a catalogue. The sweaters in question came in various colors, and these shades were described either ambiguously or using common descriptive names. Again, the students clearly preferred the vague names when making their buying choices. A third test turned up similar results.
Why does ambiguity seem to sell? Miller and Kahn theorize that, without real information, consumers try to understand why the product has such a jazzy name and fill in the blanks with imagined desirable qualities.
The name game is serious business in the crayon industry, where the names of colors have provoked occasional semantic storms.
The name of the color "Prussian Blue" was changed to "Midnight Blue" in 1958 in response to teachers' requests to change it because they felt students were no longer familiar with the history of the Baltic kingdom.
The Crayola company voluntarily changed the name of the color "Flesh" to "Peach" in 1962, "partially as a result of the U. S. Civil Rights Movement," the company reports on its Web site.
Similarly, Crayola changed the name of "Indian Red" to "Chestnut" in 1999 after teachers complained that "some children wrongly perceived the crayon color was intended to represent the skin color of Native Americans."
Is a woman tough enough to be president? Of course, say most Americans -- except when they are asked to evaluate a particular woman, according to a recent national survey by Westhill Partners and the National Journal's Hotline.
In a survey of 1,015 randomly selected adults in June, the pollsters asked a third whether they agreed or disagreed with the statement, "a woman is tough enough to be president." A third were asked the same question, except in place of "a woman," the pollsters read "Hillary Clinton." The final third were asked about Condoleezza Rice. In each instance, the generic woman clearly outperformed either Clinton or Rice. Nearly two in three -- 64 percent -- strongly agreed that a woman was tough enough, but only 32 percent expressed the same view of Clinton, while 21 percent shared that perception of Rice.
Even among members of their respective parties, a generic woman beat the flesh-and-blood type. "Hillary loses 24 points among Democrats and nearly 50 points among independents.
Rice loses just 9 points among Republicans but a whopping 64 points among independents," wrote the Hotline's politically savvy editor, Chuck Todd.
One caveat, and it's a big one: In questions of this type, nobody almost always beats somebody. In polling before and during last year's presidential primaries, a larger percentage of Americans said they would vote for "the Democratic candidate for president" than said they would vote for John F. Kerry, Howard Dean or any of the other Democratic wannabes.
Still, the differences are stunning and pose a challenge to Clinton as she contemplates a bid for president in 2008. "The biggest hurdle Hillary faces isn't her last name (as many folks believe), it's her gender," Todd wrote.
Speed Dating: It's Not About Personality
File this under the heading, Well, duh.
Psychologists Robert Kurzban and Jason Weeden of the University of Pennsylvania had a neat idea: Use data collected by the popular HurryDate dating service to answer the question: What do men and women really want in a date?
HurryDate wanted to know, too. So they provided the researchers with data from 10,526 individuals who had participated in their speed-dating parties during 2003. The data included the participants' height, weight, personal habits and preferences, and asked them to rate the attractiveness of their bodies, faces and personalities. For those not familiar with speed dating, here's how it works: HurryDate and companies like it bring together men and women of roughly the same age who pay a fee to attend a party and play the dating equivalent of musical chairs. Men and women have three minutes to get to know each other before moving on to another prospective date. After each encounter, they mark "yes" or "no" on what is ungraciously called a "scorecard," indicating whether or not they wish to meet this person again. At home, they enter their scorecards online, and the company sends an e-mail advising them how to contact the members of the opposite sex who also liked what they heard and saw.
The first thing they found was that the average guy was rated yes-worthy by about a third of all women they encountered. The average woman got the green light from nearly half of the men, the psychologists report in the journal Evolution and Human Behavior.
They found that women were more likely to say yes to taller, younger and better-looking guys, as well as to guys who wanted more children. Men wanted younger women with good bodies (neither too fat nor too thin, as measured by their body mass index) and pretty faces -- particularly guys who themselves were not in particularly good physical shape.
The only surprise was how little difference personality made, Kurzban and Weeden wrote. Studies consistently find that's what men and women say they're looking for in a mate -- though apparently not in a speed date, they concluded.