President-elect Jimmy Carter unveiled the names of his chief White House aides today, including a top echelon of seven presidential assisstants all but one of whom are Georgians he has known for years.

Carter named Robert Lipshutz, 55, an Atlanta lawyer who worked in his 1966 and 1970 gubernatorial campaigns, to the position of counsel to the President.

Two aides were given the title of assistant to the President with broad general responsibilities. They are Hamilton Jordon, 32, Carter's chief aide when he was governor of Georgia and the director of his presidential campaign, and Margaret (Midge) Costanza, 44, the vice mayor of Rochester, N.Y., and the only non-Georgian among the seven top assistants.

Other key White House aides who named today and their titles are:

Jack H. Watson Jr., 38, Atlanta lawyer who has headed Carter's transition planning group since last spring, who will be assistant to the President for intergovernmental relations and the Cabinet secretary.

Stuart E. Eizenstat, 34, an Atlanta lawyer who was Carter's principal issues adviser during the campaign, who will be assistant to the President for domestic affairs and policy.

Frank Moore, 41, an aide out of Carter's gubernatorial staff, who will be assistant to the President for congressional liaison. Moore has been working as Carter's chief liaison with Congress since last July.

The seventh member of the top White House echelon is Jody Powell. Carter's 33-year-old press secretary, who announced the other appointments today.

Powell's appoinment as press secretary shortly after the election was Carter's first but his name was listed with the others in today's announcement, apparently to re-emphasize his importance in the White House operations.

Powell also announced that Carter has selected five other White House aides who will rank just below the top seven. They are:

Tim Kraft, 35, a political consultant and the director of field operations for the Carter campaign, who will be special assistant to the President for appointments.

Jim King, 41, a former aide to Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) and the trip director for the Carter campaign, who will be special assistant to the President for personnel.

Peter Bourne, 37, a Washington psychiatrist and early Carter supporter, who will be special assistant to the president for mental health and drug abuse.

Joseph W. Aragon, 35, director voter registration and Spanish-speaking affairs for the Democratic National Committee, who will be special assistant to the President and White House ombudsman.

Martha Mallard (Bunny) Mitchell, 36, director of information for the Drug Abuse Council in Washington, who will be special assistant to the President for special projects.

The group of 12 top White House aides that Carter has now named includes two women (Costanza and Mitchell), one black (Mitchell) and one Hispanic-American (Aragon). Powell rejected suggestions that this number fell short of Carter's campaign promise to increase substantially the number of women and minority group members in key White House and administration positions.

"I invite your comparison of our performance in this regard with other White House staffs." he said.

Powell also said that in the White House positions just below the key aides there will be "greater representation of women and blacks."

Beyond the names and titles that were announced today, the manner in which the Carter White House will function remained largely unknown and is likely to evolve slowly over the first several months of the new administration.

Powell said that Carter's senior aides will hold daily morning staff meetings to be presided over by Lipshutz. Describing Lipshutz as "the elder statesman" of the group, Powell said that both Carter and the other aides agreed that he should be given that task.

As such, Lipshutz may come as close to being the White House "chief of staff" in the early days of the Carter administration as anyone. But, as Carter promised, no one was given the chief of staff title and Powell insisted that none of the senior aides would assume that function.

(At a luncheon with reporters in Washington, Watson gave additional information on how the Carter White House will be organized.

Watson said Carter had told Eizenstat that his responsibility would be for issues before they became law, and Watson would be responsible for them after they were adopted. In other words, Eizenstat would initiate policy ideas. Watson would see to it that theyare implemented.

(Speaking of Jordon's role. Watson said it would be his responsibility to "facilitate politically what we want to do substantively" - that is, to win political support for Carter policies.

(Watson said the Cabinet would be grouped in "clusters," sometimes with shifting memberships, to allow Cabinet members in related fields to work on issues together. These clusters would meet "frequently," perhaps once a-week, Watson said.

(Watson also named the eight aides he said would take part in the daily staff meeting. In addition to himself, they are Jordon, Eizenstat, Powell, Moore, Lipshutz, Costanza and Richard Moe of Vice President-elect Walter F. Mondale's staff.

(Carter will begin his presidency with an early address to the nation on the state of the economy and his plans for it. Watson said.)

Saying that Carter wants to "make sure that no one or two people can cut him off" from the others, Powell said that all 12 of the aides named today will have direct access to Carter "to a greater or lesser extent.

Even with the titles, the exact functions of some of the newly named White House aides remained unclear. According to Powell, Jordan will provide political advice to Carter and will have some administrative duties. The other person to hold the title of simply assistant to the President. Costanza, will deal with special interest groups, he said.

Asked about Aragon's duties as White House ombudsman. Powell said Aragon will have "general responsibility to insure that the White House performs properly in getting problems that come to that level handled." But he also indicated that Aragon will have little or no authority over the senior White House aides charged with dealing with such problems.

In addition to the White House appointments, Powell announced three appoinments in the Commerce Department. They are Anne Wexler, associate publisher of Rolling Stone magazine, to be deputy under secretary of commerce for regional affairs: Jerry Jasinowski, the former senior research economist for the Joint Economic Committee and a Carter Campaign aide, to be assistant secretary of commerce for economic policy, and Robert T. Hall, director of the National Commission for Manpower Policy, to be assistant secretary of commerce for economic development.