President Carter yesterday ordered that the same kind of prohibition against the secret monitoring of telephone conversations that Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance has instituted at the State Department also be imposed at the White House.

White House press secretary Jody Powell said that Vance's order was not instigated by Carter and that when the President learned of it "he asked that a similar order be put out in the White House."

Powell also said that no orders have gone out for other departments to institute similar bans, but that Cabinet secretaries are likely to follow the White House and State Department examples.

In his first official day as secretary Monday, Vance issued instructions to stop onitoring telephone calls unless all parties on the line know it is happening or Vance or his deputy grants an exception.

Powell said that Carter frequently writes notes on his telephone conversations and at times dictates memoranda on them for his records. But he said the President does not allow a third party to listen to his telephone conversations unless the person he is speaking to knows of it.

Carter began his day with a meeting, which he initiated, with AFL-CIO President George Meany and the AFL-CIO's secretary-treasurer Lane Kirkland, both of whom have voiced objections to his economic stimulus proposals.

Neither labor leader responded after the meeting, which the White House described as "pleasant and cordial."

Late yesterday, Carter also held his first private meeting with a foreign ambassador to the United States, Sir Peter Ramsbotham of Great Britain. Vance and National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski also participated in the meeting.

Ramsbotham flew to London last night to be there when Vice President Mondale visits Great Britain.

In response to a question about public reaction to the President's pardon of Vietnam war draft evaders, Powell said that so far the White House has received about 3,000 letters opposing the pardon and about 1,800 supporting it. When he issued the pardon, Carter said that he expected more than half of the American people to disagree with it for one reason or another.