President Carter yesterday withdrew former President Ford's nomination of career diplomat Malcolm Toon as ambassador to the Soviet Union, a post Toon now occupies under a temporary appointment.

Toon was one of 48 diplomatic and other nominations by Ford that Carter notified the Senate he was withdrawing. Most were patronage plums that Ford handed out to many supporters in the final days of his administration.

Ford's decision to send Toon to Moscow was announced Nov. 24, after almost two months of discreet dickering with the Soviet Union. Analysts said the unusual delay was partly because of Toon's reputation as a hardliner.

The White House did not say what Carter plans to do with Toon, who was U.S. ambassador to Israel before he took the Moscow post.

Also withdrawn was Ford's controversial nomination of Jack B. Olson as ambassador to the Bahamas.

Olson, a former lieutenant governor of Wisconsin, worked hard for Ford during last year's Republican primary there. When Ford sent his name to the Senate in September, the Senate took no action, in part because of opposition led by Sen. Jesse A. Helms (R-N.C.). Olson went to the Bahamas in mid-December under a recess appointment, which did not require Senate confirmation.

Virginia Knauer, former consumer adviser to Ford, lost her nomination for a two-year appointment to the U.S. Metric Board.

Thaddeus A. Garrett Jr., a top black adviser to former Vice President Rockefeller, lost his nomination for a seven-year term as a consumer product safety commissioner.

A White House spokesman said Carter may decide to renominate some of them, but the withdrawals give him the option of replacing those he chooses to.

Also withdrawn was Patrick J. Delaney, son of Rep. James J. Delaney (D-N.Y.), nominated for a four-year term on the Securities and Exchange Commission.

The President also announced yesterday he has invited U.N. Secretary General Kurt Waldheim to visit Washington Thursday and Friday for talks that will include Vice President Mondale, Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance, and U.N. Ambassador Andrew Young.

The President confirmed that he will nominate Colorado State Treasurer Sam Brown Jr. to head the ACTION agency, and MaxCleland, a triple amputee, to head the Veterans Administration.

Brown, a leading antiwar activist in the early 1970s, was a key supporter in Eugene McCarthy's bid for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1968. In October when there seemd to be a chance that McCarthy's independent candidacy might cost Carter the 1976 election, Brown helped organize former McCarthy supportes to repudiate their old idol.

Cleland, a native of Atlanta, receives veterans' benefits, Powell said, and has agreed to give to charity any increases in those benefits that come while he is heading the VA.

The President left the White House for two visits yesterday. He took a mild slap at Congress during a speech to 50 fund-raisers called together by the Democratic National Committee, which is trying to reduce its campaign debts.

Carter told the group at DNC headquarters that federal pay raises should not go into effect in the future until after the general election following their approval.

The first such pay raise since 1969, which includes Congress, goes into effect Sunday. The House adjourned Thursday without voting it down.

Carter also visited the Interior Department for a question-and-answer session with employees. His statements included:

"Before the day is over," he would ask the heads of all television networks to come up with ways of telling deaf people what is being said on their programs. At each of Carter's visits to Cabinet departments, a person translates his comments in sign language to deaf employees clustered at the front of the crowd.

He hopes to create a position in the Interior Department "even more exalted than we have now" to oversee ndian affairs.

His "comprehensive revision of our entire income tax code" will be ready to go to Congress by the end of September.

Secretary Jody Powell, who had earlier promised that the financial disclosure statements of all Carter administration Cabinet members would be made public by Sunday, said it would be Tuesday or Wednesday before they could be released.