Environmentalists, veterans and the Israelis were among the big winners in the revised budget President Carter sent Congress yesterday.

Carter proposed that the Environmental Protection Agency be given funds to add 600 new employees to its present complement of 9,500. The additional workers would be used in carrying out the new Toxic Substances Act and assorted other EPA activities. Environmental groups had told the administration that the EPA needed this beefing-up.

Carter also knocked out of the budget he inherited from former President Ford about $200 million in development money for the controversial breeder reactor, a type of nuclear power-producer that many environmentalists think might be dangerous.

In addition, Carter dropped 10 dam-building and other "water resources" projects, a number of which environmentalists have opposed. And his budget includes money to provide consumer representation before state and local utility-regulating agencies, and before the federal Nuclear Regulartory Commission.

Carter also proposed a speedup in creation of a federal petroleum reserve, an oil storage program to help tide the country over in any future embargo or other emergency.

The President asked for an extra $400 million in fiscal 1978 - the spending year beginning next Oct. 1 - to provide cost-of-living increases in pensions and other cash benefits for veterans.

The new budget would increase aid to Israel to $1.8 billion, an increase of $285 million. The Israelis asked for an even larger increase over the Ford proposal. Much aid to Israel goes to help buy weapons. Carter also proposed offsetting increases in aid to Egypt, Syria and Jordan, the Arab nations on Israel's borders.

Carter proposed that the government's biggest aid-to-education program, under which money goes to the education of low-income children, be increased $350 million, or more than 10 per cent, ovet the Ford recommendations, but this extra money would not start flowing until the 1978-79 school year.

College tuition grants to lower-income and some middle-income students would also be increased about $400 million starting next year under the Carter plan, in such a way that students from more families in the $10,000-to-$15,000 income range would qualify.

The President recommended a $500 million increase in community development or physical reconstruction money for cities. Of this, $400 million would be a discretionary fund for Housing and Urban Development Secretary Patricia Roberts Harris to use in aiding "the most distressed cities," according to the administration's explanation.

There is also increased "rent subsidy" and public housing construction money and authority in the budget, some of it for the current fiscal year.

Carter proposed $223 million more than Ford to hold down postal rates. He also proposed increased funding to enable the Commission on Federal Paperwork to make its final report this October.