The first two congressional delegations scheduled to visit the People's Republic of China this year leaves Thursday for a 10-day trip.

Sen. Richard S. Schweiker (R-Pa.) and Rep., John Brademas (D-Ind.) will head the bipartisan group of 12, which will include Rep. Barbara Mikuski (D-Md.). It will be the 11th congressional group to visit China since the Nixon administration ended two decades of restricutions on travel to that country in March, 1974.

Brademas said in a telephone interview from Indiana district that he will try to ascertain the Chinese reaction to the just-concluded strategic arms Limitation talks in Moscow, where Soviet leaders refused to even discuss new Carter adminstration proposals.

"I will also be interested in seeing what that they have to say, if anything about President Carter's human rights thrust in foreign policy," Brademas said. . . . It's rather obvious that we have radically different views of the world, and they don't assign the priority to individual rights that we do in the American systems."

Brademas said he doesn't yet know the itinerary for the trip, or what Chinese leaders the group might be allowed to meet. He did not ask for a chance to visit China, he said, but was asked by House Speaker Thomas P. (Tip) O'Neill Jr. (D-Mass) "a few days ago" if he would like to go.

"Presumably we wouldn't be asked out there if we won't have opportunity to talk to some people with views on these matters," he said.

Other members of the group will have their own particular concerns, Brademas said. In announcing the trip yesterday, the White House said the visits are ". . . . part pf the Shanghi Communique, in which both sides pledged to foster broader understanding and engage in cultural and scientific exchanges."

Former President Nixon signed the Shanghai Communique in February, 1972, at the end of his first trip to China.

There will be 23 such visits under it this year, the White House said, including one more group from Congress, amd scientific, foreign policy, trade and cultural groups.

The first Chinese group to participate in the exchange this year is a chemistry delegation expected in late April, the White House said, Brademas said he also has "a particular interest" in looking at the Chinese educational systems and visiting "some of theit museums and cultural institutions." He is a chairman of a House Education subcommittee, and also has some responsility for museum services programs, and the endownments for humanities and the arts.

The White House announced all but one of those making trip, including Sens. John C. Culver (D-Iowa), William V. Roth Jr. (R-Del.), Robert B. Morgan (D-N.C.), John Durkin (D-N. H.) and Reps Mark Andrews (R-N. D.), Silvio O. Conte (R-Mass), Jack Edwards (R-Ala.), George F.Danielson (D-Calif.) and Mikulski.