Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance headed home to Washington today after briefing French leaders on frustrated strategic arms limitation talks with Soviet officials in Moscow.

Vance was to be met on his arrival at Andrews Air Force Base by President Carter.

The secretary's stopover in Paris followed similar visits to Bonn and London to fill in West German and British leaders on the number of ballistic missiles and strategic bombers in the Soviet Union and the United States.

Vance's visit to the French capital coincided with one by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat who is touring West European capitals en route to Washington trying to promote support for resumption of the Geneva Middle East peace talks. The two men did not meet, but the Egyptian leader had warm words for the Carter administration's attitude toward his area.

Leaving a luncheon meeting with French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing, Sadat told reporters. "There have been really very encouraging signs from the side of President Carter.

"What he said about the concussion bombs, about his declaring for the first time a homeland for the Palestinians, were very, very encouraging signs."

Carter has spoken of the desirability of a Palestinian homeland and has ordered a slowdown on the sale of concussion bombs to Israel. The bombs explode in the air with devastating effect on troops in the area.

Asked about U.S. pressure on Israel to make peace, Sadat said, "Without American pressure, Israel will never heed anything at all."

When he was asked what would happen if Israel refused to sit down with Palestinian leaders at Geneva. Sadat said, "I can't answer this question except after I've seen President Carter because we shall be discussing all the probabilities and what will happen after that."

The Soviet Union called today for the quickest possible solution to the Middle East situation. It came in a review of the Soviet Union's Middle East policy published by the Communist Party newspaper Pravda.

Western diplomats found no major new announcements in the lengthy article but noted a "progress-minded," non-polemical tone. During his stay in Moscow, Secretary Vance had also engaged in discussions on the Middle East.

The article, by political commentator Yuri Glukhov, referred indirectly to the Soviet Union's call last Oct. 2 for a reconvening of the Geneva talks with Palestine Liberation Organization representatives.

Glukhov, however, did not stress the element of PLO participation. He called the Oct. 2 declaration "preliminary propositions about possible foundations of peace in the Middle East" and added that "the U.S.S.R. takes a flexible and constructive position in relation to other points of view."

The article largely repeated Middle East positions given March 21 by Soviet Communist Party leader Leonid Brezhnev, including a suggestion that Israel make a phased withdrawal of forces to the country's 1967 borders over a period of "several months."

It said the concept of more extended, "defensible" borders for Israel beyond those in 1967 contain "the seeds of new military conflicts."

When Israeli forces withdrew to the 1967 borders, the article said, such powers as the Soviet Union, the United States, France and England could help guarantee the new frontiers through observers or participation in a United Nations buffer-zone force.

The Soviet government newspaper Izvestia, meanwhile, kept up the criticism of the U.S. proposals for new strategic arms limitations. It accused the United States of trying to "hoodwink" the Kremlin with "hasty, ill-conceived proposals."

In an article by commentator Alexander Bovin, the newspaper said the Soviet Union was ready to negotiate a new agreement with the United States, but only on the basis of "an honest approach to business."

Last Wednesday the Soviets turned down two proposals brought to Moscow by Vance. One called for "deep cuts" in both countries nuclear arsenals; the other suggested that both sides accept a weapons ceiling agreed to by then-President Gerald Ford and Brezhnev in 1974 at Vladivostock.

Izvestia said both proposals would give the United States the edge in "the general strategic balance."

"In both caseses, the Americans are trying to make big poliitics on cunning, on their striving to hoodwink the partner in the negotiations, and this is a most untrustworthy thing," the newspaper said.

The article also cited "instability" stemming from the change of administrations in Washington.

"The fever shaking political Washington at least one year in four is fraught with the most unexpected consequences," Izvestia said. "What sort of stability is there if the word 'detente' is disowned for fear of rightwingers?

"And what is to be done with trust if, without bringing one thing to an end, and discarding a carefully weighted balancing of interests, hasty, ill-considered proposals that are far from realistic are tossed about."

Vance's discussions with French officials ranged over several other major issues besides the arms talks. President Giscard reportedly pressed the Secretary of State for a decision on New York landing rights for the Concorde supersonic jetliner and also brought up the situation in Africa.

Foreign Minister Louis de Guiringaud told Vance about his recent trips to Israel and the Arab nations and gave his estimate of the chances for peace in the area. The talks also touched on the forthcoming economic summit in London, the deadlocked North-South dialogue and other issues.

Vance said his meetings with the two French leaders were "most cordial, fruitful and useful" and that he was "looking forward very much to continuing our close cooperation with the French in the months ahead."

Observers said that while no decisions were reached, Vance's conversations here indicated the importance the Carter administration places on maintaining close ties with Paris.