The Soviet Union, still indignant at the way the Carter administration handled last week's negotiations here, indicated today that the United States should give ground on the issue of limiting strategic arms.

The Soviet standpoint after the unsuccessful Moscow mission by Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance was put forward by the Communist Party daily Pravda in its weekly review of international affairs.

"The Soviet Union stands firmly for good relations with the United States of America. It is up to the U.S.A." Pravda said.

It added that the question was whether the United States was capable of "adopting realistic positions and taking into consideration to a greater degree the interests of the U.S.S.R. and its allies."

The implied demand for U.S. concessions was coupled with continued criticism of the approach taken toward the strategic arms question by Carter and Vance.

There was no hint in the Pravda commentary, or in a still more scathing article last night in the government daily, Izvsetia, that the Kremlin was in the mood to respond to conciliatory signals from Washington, observers said.

Meanwhile, the Hungarian newspaper Magyar Nemzet said the failure of last week's talks had injected "a pessimistic note" into prospects for Soviet-American relations.

"Have we perhaps misjudged detente?" the Budapest paper asked. "Was it just a delusion of spring in winter, whose icy wind has been blowing again since last week?"