The National Academy of Sciences yesterday named 60 new members, including five from the Washington area and one from baltimore, in recognition of outstanding achievements in original research.

Among those elected were Secretary of Defense Harold Brown and three senior staff members at the National Institures of Health in Bethesda.

Brown, 49, a former secretary of the Air Force and most recently president of the California Institute of Technology, is a New York City native and a Columbia University graduate who earned a doctorate in nuclear physics when he aas 21 years old.

Brown, former director of military and engineering research at the Pentagon, has worked on several missile and nuclear projects, including the Plowshare Program to develop nonmilitary uses of nuclear energy.

He once headed the lawrence Radiation Laboratory at the university of California and has served on the Presidential Science Advisory Committee and an advisory committee for the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.

Also named were:

Theodor Otto Diener, 56, a Swiss-born plant pathologist employed by the Agriculture Department's agricultural research service in Beltsville. Diener, who was naturalized in 1955, discovered the "viroid," a disease-producing agent 80 times smaller than the previously smallest knwon virus.

Richard Michael Krause, 52, a Marietta, Ohio, native, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at NIH. A recognized epidemiologist, Dr. Krause is considered an expert on two poststreptococcal diseases, including acute rheumatic fever.

Elizabeth Fondal Neufeld, 48, another naturalized American who was born in Paris, is a research biochemist and chief of the section on intermediary metabolism at NIH. She is a leading international authority on human genetic diseases.

Herbert Tabor, 58, a native of Boston, chief of the laboratory of biochemical pharmacology at NIH. Dr. Tabor is a former recipient of the Arthur S. Flemming award (1957) for being one of the "10 Outstanding Young Men in Government." He was cited for his research on the causes and treatment of wound shock.

John Walley Littlefield, 51, a native of Providence, R.I., who is chairman of the department of pediatrics at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Little field was a central contributor to the development of prenatal diagnois using a technique that allows doctors to determine the sex and health of unborn fetuses. He lives in the Baltimore area.