Menachem Begin, whose right-wing Likud Party won Israel's national elections last week, practically closed the door yesterday on President Carter's proposals to achieve peace in the Middle East.

Begin, in an appearance on "issues and Answers" (ABC, WMAL), steadfastly rejected Carter's suggestions that Israel return to its pre-1967 borders, ruled out the possible participation of the Palestine Liberation Organization in any new Geneva peace talks on the Middle East, and rejected any suggestion for the creation of a Palestinian state on the West Bank of the Jordan River.

Those proposals would generally benefit the Soviet Union and endanger Israel's national security, Begin said. For example, a newly created Palestinian state "would in no time turn into the central [Middle East] base of the Soviet Union," he said.

Begin's comments came two days before a scheduled meeting in Washington between President Carter and Saudi Crown prince Fahd for talks on the Middle East and oil policy.

Fahd, deputy prime minister of Saudi Arabia and brother of King Khalid, has said Saudi Arabia is willing to help the United States build up strategic oil reserves - but only if the Carter administration "throws all its weight" into settling the Arab-Israeli conflict on Arab terms.

"First and foremost," those terms include an Israeli withdrawal from all Arab territories occupied in 1967 and the return of the Palestinians' rights to their homeland and a state of their own," Fahd said in an interview published over the week-end.

President Carter has assured Arab leaders of his support for a homeland for Palestinians. But Begin, in statements that are expected to add a significant degree of tension to the talks this week between Fahd and Carter, left no doubt that he regards Carter's assurance as meaningless in the context of current Israeli politics.

"I would like to point out that we don't know what he (Carter) means by 'homeland for the Palestinians,'" Begin said.

The prospective Israeli prime minister added: "I think the Palestinians have a homeland. They live in their places, in the cities. Who are the Palestinians? They are Arabs.

"You know, I call myself a Palestian, 'Palestine' is a foreign translation of the words: 'the land of Israel, and therefore we are all Palestinians."

In 1967, during the Six-Day War, Israel conquered the Sinai peninsula, the West Bank of the Jordan, th Gaza Strip and Golan Heights - greatly extending its borders, Carter has asked that Israel return to its pre-1967 borders with some rectifications.

Asked if he did not regard his stance as conflicting with Carter's, Begin said: "He knows the Bible. I understand he knows, the Bible by heart. So he knows to whom this country by rights belongs."

Begin said he "will try to explain" that to Carter if, as expected, he meets with the President in the next few weeks.

Begin said he did not think his opposition to present American policy would result in a loss of American military support for Israel.

Begin said he did not think his opposition to present American policy would result in a loss of American military support for Israel.

Begin was adamant in his refusal to sit at the negotiating table with members of the Palestine Liberation Organization.

"What are we going to negotiate with them?" he asked. "The destruction of the state of Israel? That is absolutely absurd."

Begin said PLO leader Yasser Arafat "and his henchmen . . . have a Nazi attitude toward the Jewish people. They want to destroy our people," he said.