The Israeli government criticized President Carter's latest statements on the Middle East today saying he has encouraged Arab extremism and endangered chances for peace.

Despite U.S. denials that Washington is formulating its own Middle East peace formula, Carter's statements "create the impression that a specific American plan exists," caretaker Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin said in a Cabinet communique made public today.

Carter "is liable to disrupt the moderation of the Arab positions and endanger the chances to bridge the positions," it said.

The communique is one of the toughest statements against U.S. policy since Carter became President.

Carter told a press conference Thursday that U.S. policies in the Middle East "do include the right of the Palestinians to have a homeland, to be compensated for losses they have suffered." He cited a 30-year-old U.N. General Assembly resolution covering these points.

But the Israeli statement said U.N. resolutions are not binding on Israel since the Arabs have what Israelis call "an automatic majority" of supporters.

In other developments:

Crown Prince Hassan of Jordan left Amman for the United States today on a private visit that will also include some talks with government officials.

Eleven Soviet cosmonauts are among 500 delegates invited to an international conference on space research opening in Tel Aviv June 7. They are part of the biggest Socialist bloc delegation to visit Israel for an international conference since the 1967 war.