The Kremlin published portions of a long promised new constitution, a document supposed to carry the country toward full communism, yesterday.

The new document, first promised by the late Nikita Khrushchev in 1959, bears the stamp of the present Communist Party leader, Leonid Brezhnev, and is designed to replace the 1936 "Stalin constitution."

A preview of the new constitution published by the Soviet news agency Novosti gave no details of the rumored government reorganization that is expected to eliminate the office of president, now held by Nikolai Podgorny. The full constitution is to be published Saturday.

One of the published excerpts describes the Soviet Union as a "state of the whole people," rather than a union of worker and peasant classes. The structure of the country as a union of nationally based republics is apparently preserved, according to the official summary, but the constitution will recognize a "natural drawing closer together of the nations."

On human rights, the document repeats the promises in Stalin's constitution of freedom of speech, press and assembly and of the inviolability of the person and the home. But, as in Stalin's document, these rights may not be exercised against the interests of the socialist state.

Meanwhile, the official news agency, Tass, rejected official U.S. statements of concern over fate of jailed Jewish dissident Anatoly Scharansky as "an attempt to meddle" in Soviet internal affairs.