A broadening attack on human rights violations in Eastern Europe and a growing call for more effective disarmament measures, were heard here today as the 35-nation conference to review implementation of the 1975 Helsinki agreements moved through its second day of opening speeches.
The 420 delegates here also heard the first two staunchly pro-Soviet countries to speak - Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia - try to divert such criticism by warning that "certain reactionary forces" in the West were seeking to undermine the spirit of the Helsinki accords and bring back the cold war.
A sharp and, from the Western view, significant consemnation of human-rights violations was delivered by the chief delegate from neutral Sweden, Lief Leifland.
Leifland epressed deep sympathy "with people who are humiliated and persecuted because they wish to expless their views on society or practice their religion, or because they want to meet and work together for political or other goals."
The Swedes also made another point crucial to Western arguments when they claimed they would "not refrain from drawing attention to human-rights violations and cannot posssibly regard this as interference in the affairs of other nations."
Soviet-bloc countries have attempted to argue that criticism of human-rights activities is interference in domestic affairs. The West considers that the Helsinki accords which call for such right sand which all 35 countries signed have put this topic in the international arena permanently.
There is also widening interest here in more so-called confidence-building measures to increase security against attack. Norway warned of a Soviet build-up in the north of Europe and called for advance notice of even small military maneuvers.
Yugoslavia complained today that the number of military training exercises by the two power blocs had actually increased since the Helsinki accords were signed and that the exercise were "far beyond the normal demands of military training."
Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia both called for Western acceptance of two Warsaw Pact proposals that would pledge signers not to be the first to use atomic weapons and would put a limit on existing military alliances.
Both of these proposals, however, have already been rejected by NATO. The non-first-use proposal would prevent a NATO force from using atomic weapons if it were being overrun by numerically-superior Warsaw Pact forces, and the proposed alliance lid is seen as a technique for keeping Spain from eventual NATO membership.
West Germany's chief delegate, Guenther Van Well, whose country has perhaps more at stake than any other Western country in a carefully developed human-rights debate because of the division of Germany, treaded very carefully.
He only made a veiled criticism of East Germany for cracking down on more than 100,000 persons who have applied to emigrate to the West, many of them on the basis of the Helsinki pledge for freer movement of people.
Although the Eastern countries did distribute the text of the Helsinki accords widely, Van Well noted that "if men then take part in the reality of its provisions, it is not in the spirit of Helsinki to suffer persecution from such acts."
The Czechoslovak delegate drew an unintended wave of laughter from many of the 60-70 correspondents watching his speech on closed-circuit television, when solemnly asserted that his country was implementing all the provisions of the Helsinki accord and that "we create the best possible working conditions for journalists, issuing visas in tow weeks and for sports writers in three days."
Actually, many Western correspondents have been unable to return to Prague for reporting assignments since a group of activists in Czechoslovakia published the Charter 77 human-rights manifesto. Others who want to go are asked to sign pledges that they will not interview dissidents.
Although not the largest of the protest movements that have sprung-up in Eastern Europe in the past year, Charter 77 has nevertheless come to symbolize the most eloquent call for human rights in bolize the most eloquent call for human rights in the Soviet bloc. The repression and harassment of many of the several hundred persons who signed the document is likely to be a major target of the West when the meetings here move into closed-door sessions next week. U. S. Ambassador Arthur Goldberg is expected to allude to it Thursday without refering specifically to Czechoslovakia.