Sen. Henry M. Jackson (D-Wash.) said a Senate hearing yesterday showed "differences of opinion" that cut right across the Carter administrations's intended compromise with the Soviet Union on a new nuclear arms control pact.

After a three-hour meeting between Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance and key senators on arms control, Jackson used relatively mild language in describing senatorial "concerns" and "differences."

But by the time Jackson finished listing the disagreements to reporters, they were vase. They covered virtually the entire range of compromisesthat President Carter said have now brought the United States and the Soviet Union "within sight" of an agreement.

Jackson said "our concerns relate to the threat to our Minuteman [Intercontinental land-based missile] force, to and he later added to "sea-based strategic systems" and to the adequacy of restrictions on the Soviet bomber known as Backfire.

In addition, jackson said, there is "an enormous problem that remains" on how to verify compliance with the agreement. As a result, he said, "I think there are a number of outstandingdifferences that have to be resolved.'

Jackson, who is chairman of the Senate Armed Services Arms Control Subcommittee, said, "I think the administration has gone some distance" to make concessions to the Soviet Union. As for Soviet concessions, he said, skeptically, "I'll have a better idea when we get some answers from the Russians on some outstanding problems."

Secretary Vance, defending the U.S. negotiating strategy, said there are two areas of compromise on the Soviet side. They include, he said Soviet concessions on levels of arms "ceilings which would be part of any new agreement." and "further bans on the development of [new nuclear] systems, which would be a way of preventing qualitative improvements" of new weaponry.

Participants said there was "though questioning" of Vance in the session attended by Senate MajorityLeader Robert C. Byrd (D.W.Va.) and members of the Foreign Relations and Armed Services committees. Most senators, it was said were asking questions, rather than declaring their positions.

The strongest complaint in the hearing was over lack of consultation by the administration on its negotiations with the Soviet Union.

Vance acknowledged the need for closer consultation. He agreed after discussion with Byrd, Baker and others to return for further testimony next week with this group, in addition to regular consultations with the Foreign Relations Committee.

Said Jackon: "We are going to try to regularize an arrangement by which we can be kept currently informed, day-to-Day, or week-to-week, as the situation might arise in the future."

Vance told reporters he fully agreed that it is "extremely important" to intensify consultations.

This means,informed sources said, that the Carter administration is now bound to Senate consultations which are likely to slow down its negotiations with the Soviet Union, as is bargains alternately with theSenate and with the Russians.

The Carter administrationsaid one source, "wants to avoid another "Panama" - referring to the roundhouse clash with Congress over approval ofthe Panama Canal treaties.

Sen.Strom Thurmond (R.S.C.) amajor challenger of the canal treaties, said that opposition cannot be compared to the questions being raised over the U.S. Soviet negotiations in the nuclear strategic arms limitation talks (S.M.T).

"There are deep concerns here about a number of matters." Thurmond said. He expressed special concern about constraints on American developed cruise missiles, a low-flying, pilotless plane launched from the air, ground or sea which the Soviet Union seeks to restrict.

"We must take no steps," Thurmond said, "to deny us the full use of the development and deployment ofcruise missiles," and freedom to transfer that technology "to our allies."

Under the secret compromises reached between the United States and the Soviet Union, the United States would be permitted to deploy from 70 to 120 bombers armed with cruise missiles, beyond the arms ceilings originally projected by the two nations in 1974.

As now projected, total nuclear strategic arsenals on each side would be limited to 2.160 or 2.250 intercontinental missiles and bombers. In the complex bargaining, the United States gave way on the Carter administration's original attempt to cut in half the numbers of the largest Soviet land-based missiles, known as SS-18s. In return, a limit of 800 to 850 is now planned on the number of Soviet and American land missiles armed with multiple warheads.

Critics, including Jackson and others, contend that this would have the Soviet Union with a force large enough to endanger the American land-based missile system.

The Carter administration maintains that on balance, the projected SALT accord will representa better agreement than anyone anticipated during negotiations conducted in 1974 or1976 -although admittedly far short of Carter's original goals.

An administration source said yesterday "we have an opportunity to throttle down" the nuclear arm-race in the current negotiations known as SALT II, and "still have options open to protect our security." and then bargain for greater advances in SALT III. The search for "an ideal agreement." he said should not be at the expense of achieving attainable goals.