Santiago Carrillo, the Spanish Communist leader who has emerged as the chief European Communist critic of the Soviet ruling Party, was barred today from addressing a massive party rally here marking the 60th anniversary of the Russian Revolution.

Carrillo, who arrived here yesterday from Madrid, said he apparently was barred because he intended to continue his criticism of the way Soviet Communists run their party and their country and seek to dictate how other Communist parties will conduct their affairs.

"I was not given an opportunity to speak, nor was I given any reason why," said the crusty Spaniard. "But I think you can imagine why. I wanted to state the specific conditions of our party regardless of the opinions held here, but that was not possible. It is their house and they are free to listen to whom they wish to hear. Time and experience will tell who is right."

Carrillo was subjected to a savage attack last June by the Kremlin leadership, which scored him and his book, "Eurocommunism and the State." The book sharply criticized the Soviet Union and suggested that European communism pursue its own line of development. Soviet Communists have always insisted on the primacy of their views, goals and methods.

The Soviet attack on Carrillo in June came just after the Spanish Communist Party surprised many observers by receiving barely 7 per cent of the vote in the Spanish parliamentary elections, the first free national political election there since the Spanish Civil War four decades ago.

When Carrillo left Spain for Moscow this week, he declared: "I will tell them that we are not in agreement with the road they have taken and the methods they employ." He submitted to Soviet officials the text of a seven-minute speech to be delivered today, as part of a day-long series of encomiums from representatives of many of the 134 delegations attending the 60th anniversary festivities.

Fierce ideological battles have raged within world communism for decades. The insistence by party theoreticians for conformity of thought and the struggle for supremacy of different, or conflicting views, helps explain some of the rifts that develop from time to time. The most notable of these is the Soviet-Chinese disagreement, a sharp conflict that finds its roots partly in ancient racial and territorial tensions, but also in differences over the nature and direction of world communism.

In Europe, the relationship between the Kremlin ideologues and the Communist parties to the West has taken on sharpened significance this year as Communists in both Italy and France appear to be approaching some direct participation in their nations' governments.

Carrillo told Western reporters after he was barred from the podium: "I considered it my duty to participate in the celebration for the October Revolution, which is the property of all progressive forces, regardless of the way I have been received. The problem here could help me with some votes in the next Spanish election," an assertion that seemed designed to underscore his belief that Soviet communism is not widely admired in Spain. "They say I'm a traitor, so it would be a little strange if they had offered an opportunity to speak."

Carrillo reportedly turned down an offer to speak in a factory.

Meanwhile, a Spanish poet, Rafael Alberti, who is here for the festivities, canceled a reading of his poems before the Soviet Writers' Union.

"If the chief of the delegation cannot speak," he asserted, "then neither should the other members."

Soviet enmity for Carrillo has been sharp ever since last year's conference of European Communist parties, at which Carrillo directed a lengthy criticism of the Soviets, in the presence of Soviet Party leader Leonid I. Brezhnev.

Among the other European Communist leaders to speak here in the past two days, only Enrico Berlinguer, head of the Italian Communists, lightly suggested a separate path for European Communists.

He said each party must "follow a road according to the particular factors" and conditions of each country.

Berlinguer's speech received light, polite applause. But the ringing endorsements of Soviet Ideological leadership by such veteran hard-line leaders as Todor Zhivkov of Bulgaria brought waves of applause from the delegates in the palace of Congresses, leaving little public doubt as to their views on the issue of who should be leader and who led.